Duquesne University School of Law

Academic Bulletin

Please Note: Site under construction for start of Fall 2017 Semester

The Academic Bulletin is the official listing of policies and procedures for students at Duquesne University School of Law.

Article I: J.D. Graduation Requirements

Duquesne Law School awards the degree of Juris Doctor to those students who successfully fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Completion of eight-seven (87) credit hours with passing grades. 
  2. Maintenance of a cumulative QPA of 2.0 or higher.  See Article I, 1.5.  [hyperlink to 1.5]
  3. Successful completion of all required courses.  [hyperlink to list of required courses]
  4. Completion of the Upper-Level Writing Requirement.  See Article I, 1.2. [hyperlink to 1.2]
  5. Completion of the Experiential Learning Requirement. 
    1. Students who matriculated prior to Fall 2016 must successfully complete one course having a substantial professional skills component.  See Article I, 1.3(a).   [hyperlink to 1.3(a)]
    2. All students matriculating after Fall 2016 must successfully complete at least 6 hours of experiential learning.  See Article I, 1.3(b).   [hyperlink to 1.3(b)]
  6. Satisfaction of the Residency Requirement.  See Article I, 1.4.  [hyperlink to 1.4]
  7. Be of good moral character.
  8. Resolution of all financial obligations to Duquesne Law School and to Duquesne University.
  9. Make formal application for the degree to the Registrar in a timely manner.
  10. Be recommended by the Faculty to receive the degree of Juris Doctor.
  11. Be present at Commencement.  [hyperlink to rules or form for requesting permission to miss commencement]
  12. Completion of all credit hours within the time specified by the American Bar Association.  The American Bar Association requires law students to complete their legal education within seven years following the initial matriculation at law school.  Full-time day-division students normally satisfy this requirement by the end of their third year.  Part-time day- and evening-division students normally satisfy this requirement by the end of their fourth year.

1.02(a) General Requirements

A student is required to produce and submit, prior to graduation, an original work of acceptable professional quality involving a significant exploration of a single major topic in compliance with the provisions set forth below. This requirement may be satisfied any time after completion of a student’s first year.

1. Each student at the School of Law must successfully complete at least one rigorous faculty-supervised upper-level writing project [hereinafter, project] for award of the Juris Doctor degree.

2. This project must be supervised, reviewed, and approved by a full-time School of Law faculty member or by another faculty member who has been approved in advance for this purpose by the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs [hereinafter, supervising faculty member].

3. To approve a project as successfully completed, a supervising faculty member must certify to the Registrar that the project has met the following requirements:

a. The project is of sufficient length and was completed in a timely manner, and

b The paper demonstrates the type of high quality writing that would be expected of a new associate in a law firm or similar position in which the faculty member was a supervising attorney; the analogous level of quality corresponds to a grade of at least “C” on the law school grading scale.  [hyperlink to form student must submit requesting certification]

4. A project done for a course or other credit-granting co-curricular activity may not also be used to satisfy the “Skills Requirement” for the Juris Doctor degree.

5. There shall be no appeal from any decisions about a project made by a supervising faculty member, unless there has been a ministerial error made by the supervising faculty member; any such appeal shall go to the Academic Status Committee and be treated in the same manner as an error in submission of a final grade.

6. An electronic copy of each Project must be filed with the Registrar by the supervising faculty member no later than the end of the exam period for the semester, in a form and manner prescribed by the Registrar, attesting to the compliance of the Project with these requirements and, if the Project is graded, noting the grade assigned by the supervising faculty member to the Project and course. The Registrar shall keep on file the electronic copy of the Project and any associated forms, but may delete the copy and forms one year after the student’s date of graduation. A supervising faculty member may request that the student also submit one or more printed copies of the Project for review, and may provide the student with a copy of the supervising faculty member’s critique of the Project, in print or electronic form.

[Add hyperlinks for UPWR form requesting faculty certification]

1.02(b) Format

 

1.02(b)(1) Length and Format

To be eligible for review and approval, a project must total at least 7500 words (including citations and any endnotes or footnotes) and must be in a format prescribed by the faculty member supervising the project.

1.02(b)(2)  Requirements Applicable to Upper-level Writing Requirement Done as Part of a Course

The project, if done as part of a course, may be one single paper, or a series of papers, which are described in the Syllabus or Course Materials prepared by the faculty member and approved by the Upper-Level Writing Requirement Committee for these purposes.

  1. A project may be a scholarly research paper, a series of practice-related documents, or other papers which are of the types prepared by practicing attorneys, judges, or academicians. ii. The faculty member and student must meet at least twice to discuss the progress of the project if the project consists of one paper, and there must be at least two drafts of significant portions of the paper which are reviewed by the professor. Significant portions of a single-paper project must be reviewed at least twice by the faculty member and then revised by the student prior to the end of the project.
  2. iii. If the project consists of a series of papers, then each of those papers must be reviewed by the faculty member and revised by the student in accordance with the review provided by the faculty member.
  3. iv. A project must include substantial original content by the student; it may not be comprised solely of descriptive content.
  4. v. A project may not be the result of collaborative work with another student or law-trained person other than the professor.
  5. vi. A project must be completed within a semester.

 

[add hyperlinks for forms]

1.02(b)(3)  Requirements Applicable to Upper-level Writing Requirement Done in Conjunction with a Publication

If done in conjunction with a School of Law publication for which the faculty has approved a student receiving academic credit [hereinafter, journal], then a project must comply independently with any applicable requirements of the journal’s bylaws and editors.

i. Each journal project must be reviewed at least twice, in whole or in part, by the faculty member before the project is finished, and then revised by the student prior to the end of the project. The review shall be conducted of at least a detailed outline of the project and a final draft of the project, but the nature and extent of the reviews are within the discretion of the supervising faculty member.

ii. A student who is working on a journal project with a supervising faculty member must meet with the supervising faculty member at least twice to discuss the progress of drafts of the project before it is finished; the student and supervising faculty member should schedule such drafts and meetings to coordinate with the journal’s requirements for submission of intermediate and final drafts of the journal paper.

iii. A journal project must include substantial original work by the student; it may not be comprised solely of descriptive content.

iv. A written description of the faculty member’s requirements and the student’s agreement with those requirements must be filed with the journal before the project is begun.

v. A journal project may be completed after one- or two-semesters, in compliance with the journal’s requirements for the timing of student work.

[add hyperlinks for forms]

All students who matriculated prior to the 2016-17 academic year must successfully complete one course having a substantial professional skills component in addition to first-year Legal Research and Writing and the Upper-Level Writing requirement. The Registrar will maintain a list of courses that satisfy this requirement. You may also view the list online at duq.edu/law/registrar. Students may not use the same course to satisfy both the Upper-Level Writing requirement and the professional skills requirement.

[add hyperlinks for forms if forms exist]

All students, except those who matriculated before academic year 2016-17, must successfully complete one or more experiential course(s) totaling at least six credit hours. An experiential course must be a simulation course, a law clinic, or a field placement.  The Registrar maintains a list of courses that satisfy the experiential learning requirement, and the list may be viewed on the Registrar’s website.  Students may not use the same course to satisfy both the Upper-Level Writing requirement and the professional skills or experiential learning requirement.

[add hyperlinks for forms if forms exist]

Students must earn three (3) residency credits in order to graduate.  A full-time student is awarded .5 residency credits for each semester that the student takes at least ten (10), but not more than eighteen (18), credits. A part-time student, whether in the evening division or the part-time day division, is awarded .375 residency credits for a semester, provided he or she takes at least eight (8), but not more than thirteen (13), credits. Students who transfer to the Law School must earn a minimum of two (2) residency credits.  A student who takes six (6) summer session credits shall earn one-fourth (.25) of a residency credit.  All students, regardless of Division, are required to complete their final year of study in residence at the School of Law.

A candidate for the degree of Juris Doctor must maintain a cumulative grade point average of no less than 2.00 (rounded to the nearest hundredth), and must have a grade point average of no less than 2.00 (rounded to the nearest hundredth) for course work attempted in the last year of study. In addition, a candidate must have satisfactorily completed all other graduation requirements as set forth in this section. It is the responsibility of each student to make certain that he/she will have met these requirements at the conclusion of his/her last year of study.

Article II: Academic Policies

The grading scale for all students is as follows:

Grade              GPA

A+                   4.00

A                     4.00

A-                    3.67

B+                   3.33

B                     3.00

B-                    2.67

C+                   2.33

C                     2.00

C-                    1.67

D+                   1.33

D                     1.00

F                      0.0 Failure

The A+ grade denotes a level of performance that is truly exceptional.

2.2(a)   First-Year Courses

First-year day and evening division courses, excluding Legal Research and Writing course sections, and all second-year evening and part-time day division courses in Property and Criminal Law:

Tier 1 (A+, A, A-): Between 14% and 22% of all grades, with a target of 18%

Tier 2 (B+, B, B-): Between 36% and 54% of all grades, with a target of 45%

Tier 3 (C+, C, C-): Between 24% and 36% of all grades, with a target of 30%

Tier 4 (D+, D, F): Between 0% and 10% of all grades, with a target of 7%

Legal Research and Writing sections of fewer students will comply with this distribution to the greatest extent feasible, with compliance monitored and reported on a program-wide level.

 

Suggested guidelines for grades with First-Year Tiers are as follows:

Grade                         Minimum %              Target %                    Maximum %

A+                                           0                           N/A                                4

A                                             5                              6                                  7

A-                                            7                              9                                 11

B+                                           11                            14                               17

B                                             4                              17                               20

B-                                            11                            14                               17

C+                                           10                            12                               14

C                                             8                              10                               12

C-                                            6                               8                                10

D+                                           0                               4                                 5

D                                             0                               2                                 3

F                                              0                             N/A                              2

 

2.2(b) Upper-Level Courses

All upper-level required courses and classes with enrollment of 30 or more students, whether evaluated by an exam, paper, or project:*

Tier 1 (A+, A, A-): Between 14% and 23% of all grades, with a target of 19%

Tier 2 (B+, B, B-): Between 36% and 58% of all grades, with a target of 47%

Tier 3 (C+, C, C-): Between 24% and 38% of all grades, with a target of 32%

Tier 4 (D+, D, F): Between 0% and 2% of all grades, with a target of 2%

*Classes and seminars with enrollment of less than 30 students are not bound by this distribution.

  1. A student’s classroom performance may be incorporated into a course grade only in the following quantifiable ways, fairly applied to all students in a course:
    1. A professor may reduce students’ grades based upon class absences, no matter the reason for the absences, so long as the reduction is based upon policies announced at the start of a course and applied in a consistent manner to all students in the class during the semester.
    2. A professor may grade students on the quality of their performance on assigned tasks, such as presentations, exercises, and being “on call” for class discussion, so long as all students in the class are assigned the same or comparable tasks during the semester.
    3. A professor may reduce students’ grades based upon the their lack of preparation for classroom discussion, so long as all the students are required in the same manner to be prepared to contribute to classroom discussion and a record is maintained of all the students’ contributions during the semester.
  2. In courses in which grades are not based upon anonymous examinations, the professor shall make available to each student all the information from paragraph 1 that was used to calculate a final grade
  3. In courses where the final grade is based upon an anonymous examination, the professor shall submit to the Registrar a list of students assessing their classroom performance in compliance with paragraph 1, and the manner of calculation of final grades based upon the weighting of the examination and classroom performance, and the Registrar shall, after final examinations are graded by the professor, make adjusted calculations of the final grade, without the professor’s participation. The professor’s assessment of an individual student’s classroom performance and the calculation of final grade shall be made available to each student upon request within 30 days of the deadline for submission of final grades.

Academic Honors are determined by a ranking of the graduating class based on overall cumulative grade point average, as follows: the Summa Cum Laude designation to the top 5%; the Magna Cum Laude designation to the next 5%; and the Cum Laude designation to the next 10%.

These percentages are subject to the following limitation: No student shall graduate Summa Cum Laude unless his/her cumulative grade point average is a least 3.5, and no student shall graduate Magna Cum Laude unless his/ her cumulative grade point average is at least 3.25.

Cumulative grade point averages shall not be rounded up to qualify for honors under any of the foregoing formulas.

Students can view all final grades on Self Service Banner using a MultiPass account number. If you need a MultiPass account number, go to duq.edu/multipass. Students are responsible for changing and maintaining current local address, telephone, and other contact information in DORI. Accordingly, students should review their contact information each year for accuracy. If you need to make changes to your permanent address, please visit duq.edu/law/registrar to print the change of address form, and return it to the School of Law Registrar’s Office. The Registrar’s Office will not provide students with information about grades, grade point average, class rank and related matters over the telephone. Therefore, it is imperative that students keep their mailing information up to date.

[link to form, review language]

Any student wishing to review a graded examination must fill out an examination request form in the Main Office of the School of Law or online at duq.edu/law/registrar. Graded examinations may only be reviewed in the Main Office of the School of Law or with the professor who administered the examination. Copies of any graded examination may not be made. If a student wishes to review a graded examination with the professor who administered the exam, he/she must make the request using the examination request form. Upon receipt of the request, the Registrar’s Office will arrange to deliver the graded examination to that professor. It takes 24 to 48 hours to complete the request to review a graded examination. Students must know their anonymous exam number for the fall and spring semesters in order to review their exams.

After grades in a course have been submitted to the Registrar, no grade may be changed except to correct an arithmetic or clerical error.

A student who wishes to challenge a final grade must discuss the grade with the course faculty member no later than thirty (30) days after the start of the semester following the one in which the disputed grade was assigned. The professor must inform the student of his/her decision regarding the grade challenge no later than twenty (20) days after the discussion with the student.

A faculty member who believes a grade correction is warranted must submit a grade correction request to the Academic Status Committee. Any request must include documentation of the arithmetic or clerical error. The Committee’s disposition of the request will be reported to the full faculty.

A student may appeal a professor’s refusal to change a grade by petitioning the Academic Status Committee no later than sixty (60) days after the start of the semester following the one in which the grade was assigned. An affirmance of the professor’s decision by the Committee shall be final.

No grade may be changed later than the last day of classes of the semester following the one in which the disputed grade was assigned.

Students who wish to pursue a grade correction should also consult the grade correction policy applicable to University graduate students, which can be found at www.duq.edu/academics/university-catalogs/2016-2017-graduate/academic-policies/final-grade-appeal-policy

  1. Subject to the provisions in this Bulletin regarding Academic Dismissal, if a student receives a final grade of “F” in a course, the following rules shall apply:
    1. Required Courses: a student who receives a final grade of “F” in a required course, based on the professor’s assessment and grading of the quality of the student’s work, must retake the course when next offered. If the “F” is received in part one of a two-part required course, the student must repeat part one before taking part two of the course. If the “F” is in the Legal Research and Writing required curriculum, such student will be assigned to a different assignment sequence by the Registrar after consulting with the Director of the LRW Program. A student who receives a final grade of “F” in part one of a two-part required course, for reasons other than the quality of the student’s work, may be permitted to continue to part two of the course, with the approval of the student’s professor after consultation with the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs or the Director of the LRW Program, as applicable.
    2. Elective Courses: a student who receives a final grade of “F” in an elective course must retake the course when next offered or, if the course will not be offered in the next academic year, petition the Academic Status Committee to take a substitute elective course, or Directed Research on the same topic.
  2. If a student earns a passing grade after retaking a course under any of the provisions set forth in this section, the passing grade will appear on the student’s transcript beside the course in which the student received the “F.” The student will earn the credits for the retaken course, and only the passing grade will be included in the calculation of the student’s GPA. However, the original “F” will remain on the transcript with an “(E)” next to the “F.”
  3. A student who twice fails the same course shall be dismissed from the School of Law.

2.9(a)   Academic Dismissal – First-Year Students

1. A student who does not achieve a grade point average of at least 2.00 at the conclusion of his/her first semester of study is placed on probationary status for the second semester.

2. To maintain good academic standing and proceed to the second year of study, a student must achieve a grade point average of at least 2.00 at the conclusion of his/her first year.

3. A first-year student whose cumulative grade point average at the end of his/her first year is at least 1.67, but is less than 2.00 may petition the Academic Status Committee to return for the second year on a probationary status.

4. “Probationary status” means that the student will be required to undergo a program of academic support. Failure to complete the terms of a probationary status shall result in dismissal. Transfer students are not eligible for probationary status and must maintain a grade point average of at least 2.00 at all times.

5. A first-year student who fails to achieve a cumulative grade point average of at least 1.67 shall be dismissed from school.

2.9(b)  Academic Dismissal – Upper-level Students

1. An upper-level student shall be dismissed for academic reasons upon the occurrence of any of the following:

a. Where the student fails to achieve a yearly grade point average of at least 2.00 in his/her coursework in any academic year.

b. Where the student fails to achieve a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.00 in any year.

2.9(c)   Academic Dismissal -- Principles Applicable to All Students

1. Students subject to dismissal on any of the grounds set forth above may petition for readmission in accordance with the procedures and standards otherwise set forth in the Readmission section of this publication.

2. All references to “2.00” and “1.67” shall mean “2.000” and “1.670.”

3. A student’s grade point average is computed by multiplying the number of credit hours for each graded course by the number of grade points assigned to the letter grade earned in the course, then adding the products of these multiplications and dividing the sum by the number of credit hours of graded courses taken in the relevant period.

4. With the exception of internal/external transfer students and part-time day division students, all upper-level students are ranked at the end of each semester, and first-year students are ranked at the end of the first year. Part-time day division students are not ranked until their final year of study (fall and spring).

5. All students are evaluated for compliance with GPA standards at the end of each academic year.

6. Grades earned during any Summer Session are part of a student’s academic record for the succeeding academic year. Any student who has registered and is enrolled in a Summer Session course, other than one of the School of Law’s International Summer Study Abroad programs, who is academically dismissed from the School of Law will be involuntarily withdrawn from the Summer Session course and will not be permitted to sit for the examination in the course.

If a student is involuntarily withdrawn from a Summer Session course, other than a Summer Study Abroad Program, he/she shall be entitled to a full tuition refund. A student who is academically dismissed after the beginning of a Summer Study Abroad Program shall not be entitled to a tuition refund. If a student is academically dismissed after completing a Summer Session course, the grade earned in that Summer Session course will not become part of his/her academic transcript. Any such student shall be entitled to a certified letter from the Office of the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs concerning the grade earned in that Summer Session course.

2.10(a) Readmission – Senior who has been Academically Dismissed

A senior student who has been academically dismissed and who seeks readmission must timely petition the Faculty for readmission.

The action of the Faculty in any such case is final.

2.10(b) Readmission – Any Student Other Than a Senior Student who has been Academically Dismissed

Any student other than a senior student who has been academically dismissed may petition the Academic Status Committee for readmission. The decision of the Academic Status Committee concerning such petitions is final. All petitions must be typed and filed with the Office of the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs.  Email petitions must be sent from the student’s official .duq email account, and the student bears the burden of ensuring receipt. A student who has been academically dismissed after having been once readmitted is no longer eligible to petition for readmission.

2.10(b)(1) Readmission Procedures for Students Other Than a Senior Student Who Has Been Academically Dismissed

2.10(b)(1)(A) Petitions for Readmission

All petitions for readmission shall be made to the Academic Status Committee, c/o Office of the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs, Duquesne University School of Law, Main Office, Hanley Hall, 900 Locust Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15282. Petitions for readmission must be received within 15 days from the date of the notice of academic dismissal, or no later than 60 days prior to the scheduled first day of classes of the academic year to which the petitioner desires to be readmitted, whichever date occurs later. The petition for readmission must set forth evidence suggesting satisfaction of the READMISSION STANDARDS FOR STUDENTS OTHER THAN A SENIOR STUDENT WHO HAS BEEN ACADEMICALLY DISMISSED.

2.10(b)(1)(B)   Readmission Standards for Students Other Than a Senior Student Who Has Been Academically Dismissed

Consistent with ABA Standard 501, in resolving the merits of a petition for readmission, the petitioner has the burden of justifying readmission by establishing each of the following criteria:

1. The petitioner must present and document specific unusual or unique circumstances, not common to a large number of students or inherent in the academic process, which reasonably could produce inferior academic performance.

a. The following are illustrative of specific unique circumstances: serious illness or injury to the petitioner or death, serious illness, or injury to a member of the petitioner’s family; unusual and unanticipated financial developments; serious personal problems such as divorce.

b. The following are typical examples of vague, non-unique circumstances which will not justify readmission: difficulty of law school work, poor or unsuccessful study habits, lack of emotional maturity, financial worries, social relationship problems, lack of total commitment to the profession.

c. Risks willingly assumed, such as part-time work that could and did disrupt the petitioner’s work and study habits, will not disqualify a petitioner for readmission, but will mitigate against readmission.

2. The petitioner must present evidence establishing that the unique circumstances did, in fact, contribute to the poor performance. Post hoc rationalizations will not justify readmission.

3. The petitioner shall present evidence that there are excellent prospects for satisfactory performance in the future and that the unique circumstance(s) which produced inferior academic performance no longer exists. Relevant evidence shall include evidence of academic accomplishment or potential not reflected in the law school record, e.g., graduate school, relevant work record, letters of recommendation, etc., and proposals to remedy past defects and improve future performance

 

2.10(b)(1)(C)  Academic Status Committee’s Procedures

The following procedures shall be followed by the Academic Status Committee concerning readmission decisions for any student other than a senior student who has been academically dismissed:

1. Petitions for Readmission shall be reviewed no later than the fourth week of July of each year.

2. Petitioners shall not be given a personal hearing.

3. The Academic Status Committee shall review and evaluate in private all petitions and any supporting documentation.

4. Readmission shall be granted only by affirmative vote of a majority of the Academic Status Committee.

5. The status and conditions under which a petitioner is to be readmitted shall be determined exclusively by the Academic Status Committee; however, the Academic Status Committee shall not readmit a student who has been disqualified previously for academic reasons without an affirmative showing that the prior disqualification does not indicate a lack of capacity to complete its program of legal education and be admitted to the bar.

6. The basis for any decision made by the Academic Status Committee is considered by the Committee to be privileged; however, for every readmission of a previously disqualified student, a statement of the considerations that led to the decision shall be placed in the student’s file.

7. All decisions of the Academic Status Committee are final and are not subject to appeal.

8. All petitioners shall be informed in writing of the Academic Status Committee’s action.

9. All decisions of the Academic Status Committee denying readmission shall contain the following language: All decisions of the Academic Status Committee involve responses to requests for discretionary action. Such decisions are final and not subject to reconsideration, review or appeal.

Any person wishing to inform the Committee of any matter relating to a decision may only do so by letter.  Emails must be sent from the student’s official .duq email account, and the student bears the burden of ensuring receipt.  

Such correspondence should be addressed to the Academic Status Committee and mailed or delivered to the School of Law’s Main Office located on the second floor of Hanley Hall, 900 Locust Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15282. Individual Committee members do not have the authority to speak for the Committee and should not be contacted concerning any Committee decision. All matters occurring during Committee deliberations are considered by the Committee to be privileged.

10. In resolution of any readmission petition, the READMISSION STANDARDS FOR ANY STUDENT OTHER THAN A SENIOR STUDENT WHO HAS BEEN ACADEMICALLY DISMISSED as described above shall be followed and consistently applied.

Any student who wishes to transfer from one division to another must submit a typed, signed petition to the Academic Status Committee. .  Email petitions must be sent from the student’s official .duq email account, and the student bears the burden of ensuring receipt. Such transfers are not a matter of right. If a student is permitted to transfer into another division, he/she will not be ranked in his/her new division until the completion of his/her last semester of study. Any student who is eligible for a scholarship based upon class rank who transfers into another division forfeits his/her scholarship eligibility.  Merit scholarships awarded prior to admission are not necessarily forfeited.

If a student is unable to complete a semester’s work, or is unable, after completion of the semester, to return for the next regular semester, he/she must submit a typed petition to the Academic Status Committee for a Leave of Absence. .  Email petitions must be sent from the student’s official .duq email account, and the student bears the burden of ensuring receipt. No Leave of Absence will be granted for longer than one year, except as otherwise required by law. Except for compelling reasons, a Leave of Absence will not be granted to any student during the first year or to a student on academic probation.

A student who has reentered the School of Law after a Leave of Absence will not be ranked. Upon request, the Registrar’s Office will provide the student with a statement of presumptive rank, which will explain that the student is not eligible for an official ranking, but will estimate what the student’s approximate rank would be. Any student who returned to the School of Law after a leave of absence forfeits his/her eligibility for a scholarship based on class rank.  Merit scholarships awarded prior to admission are not necessarily forfeited.

A student who wishes to withdraw from school must submit a typed notification (email or fax requests are unacceptable) to the Office of the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs. A student who ceases to attend class during any semester, or fails to enroll in the succeeding semester without first obtaining a Leave of Absence or who fails to return within the time specified in his/her approved Leave of Absence, will be deemed to be absent without approval. Such student shall receive a failing grade in the course(s) for which he/she has previously registered. Any student who has withdrawn from the School of Law and wishes to be readmitted must file a new application for admission. Such student will be evaluated relative to all other applicants then being considered for admission.

Standard 310(a) of the American Bar Association Standards and Rules of Procedure for Approval of Law Schools requires that: “A law school shall adopt, publish, and adhere to written policies and procedures for determining the credit hours that it awards for coursework.” The following standards, adopted by Duquesne Law School, are intended to comply with Standard 310:

2.14 (a)            Definitions and General Procedures

A. Definition of Credit Hour.  In accordance with the principles set forth in ABA Standard 310, a “credit hour” requires an amount of work that reasonably approximates not less than 45 hours.  The amount of work required to justify the award of one credit hour is generally derived from a combination of in-class (classroom or direct faculty instruction) and out-of-class work; however, for certain academic activities, a credit hour may be awarded solely on the basis of out-of-class work. 

1.  Definition of an Hour.  An hour is defined as 50 minutes in the case of classroom or direct faculty instruction and as 60 minutes in all other cases.

2.  Definition of Classroom or Direct Faculty Instruction.  Total classroom or direct faculty instruction time, exclusive of written examinations or final papers, is scheduled for 50 minutes per unit of credit, exclusive of breaks, multiplied by 14, regardless of the length of the term of instruction.  

3.  Terms of Instruction and Examinations.  As a general rule, the requisite amount of work required to justify the award of credit hours to a course or academic activity shall be spread over the term of instruction.  If a course or academic activity is scheduled for less than the entire term of instruction during which it is offered, the amount of work required to justify the award of credit hours shall be spread over period during which the course or academic activity is scheduled. 

a. In fall and spring semesters, the term of instruction is spread over a fourteen-week term.

b. In summer terms, the term of instruction is spread over six-week terms.

c. For Summer Study Abroad programs, the term of instruction is spread over a three-week term.

d. After each term of instruction, examination periods are scheduled as follows:

1) Fall and spring semesters: two weeks.

2) Summer terms: one week.

3) For Summer Study Abroad programs:  immediately following conclusion of classes with a duration not to exceed one week.

2.14(b) Determination of Number of Credit Hours Assigned to a Course or Academic Activity

1. Responsibility for Assigning Credit Hours.  The determination of the appropriate number of credit hours to be assigned to a class is the sole prerogative of the Faculty.  Standard 310(b)(2) states that the Faculty shall ensure that credit granted for classes and academic activities is commensurate with the time and effort required and the anticipated quality of the education experience of the student.  In approving new courses, the Law School’s Curriculum Committee and Faculty will determine whether the number of units of credit to be awarded complies with Standard 310(b).

2. Responsibility of Professors.  Professors shall ensure that the time and effort required and the anticipated quality of the education experience of the students is commensurate with the credit hours assigned to a class or academic activity by the Faculty.

a. These standards set forth the minimum amount of work that must be required for each credit hour assigned to a course.  Professors are responsible for ensuring that the amount of work required for their classes is reasonably commensurate with the number of credits assigned to the course.

b. These standards set forth the minimum amount of work that must be required for each credit hour assigned to an academic activity.  Professors are responsible for ensuring that the amount of work required for an academic activity is reasonably commensurate with the number of credits assigned to the activity.

c. Readings and other assignments shall be indicated on the course syllabus.

1) All professors shall submit their course syllabi to the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs no later than one week after the start of classes for the semester. In so doing, a professor certifies that outside work for the course meets the requirements of Standard 310(b)(1).

2) The Associate Dean for Academic Affairs shall keep all course syllabi on file and review them on a regular basis to determine whether assignments of outside work comply with Standard 310(b)(1).

3. Requests for Course Approval or Alteration.  A professor who seeks approval for a new course or other academic activity should specify the requested number of credit hours for the course or other academic activity as part of the course request submitted to the Curriculum Committee.  Similarly, if a professor wishes to change the number of credit hours assigned to course that he or she teaches, or an academic activity that he or she supervises, the professor may petition the Curriculum Committee for an increase or decrease, as appropriate, to the number of credits hours assigned to the course or activity.  Any petition submitted to the Curriculum Committee must include sufficient evidence to demonstrate compliance with these standards and to justify the award of the requested number of credits.  The Faculty may assign a different number of credits to a course than is requested.  

a. All proposals for new courses must include a paragraph justifying the number of units of credit to be awarded.

b. The Associate Dean for Academic Affairs shall keep these justifications on file.

2.14(c)  Classroom or Direct Faculty Instruction and Out-Of-Class Work

1. Classroom or Direct Faculty Instruction Defined.  Classroom or Direct Faculty Instruction is time that the professor and class are scheduled to meet as a group, either in person or through online, synchronous streaming, to discuss the course material. Total classroom or direct faculty instruction does not include time devoted to written examinations unless such examinations are given for formative purposes. An examination is given for formative assessment if: (1) the professor reviews the examination with the class; and (2) the material tested on the examination may be tested on some future examination, including the comprehensive final.  Any faculty member who must miss a regularly scheduled class session for any reason must schedule a make-up class of equal time. 

2. Out-of-Class Work Defined.  Out-of-class work is any work assigned by a professor that facilitates the learning objectives of the course and is to be completed by the students outside of class.

a. Out-of-class work may include, but is not limited to: reading assignments; case briefing; written assignments other than examinations not given for formative purposes; solving problem sets; watching videos; participating in out-of-class simulations and role-playing exercises that help students develop lawyering competencies; research assignments; posting to an online discussion board; court or other observations; conferences with the professor; and other work that assists in comprehension of course content such as outlining and studying for examinations.

b. Although these standards set forth the minimum, rather than the maximum, length of time that outside assignments should require in order to justify the course credit allocation, professors should be mindful not to overload students with outside assignments and of the fact that students require more time to read and understand material.  Therefore, faculty are encouraged to take into account the difficulty of the subject matter and whether they are teaching first-year or upper-level students when designing assignments. In order to give first-year students sufficient time for review and reflection, assignments for first-year courses are expected to conform to the minimum standard except in unusual circumstances.  Guidance is set forth below with respect to determining the appropriate length for assignments. 

1) As guidance for determining the length of time to complete reading assignments, academic literature indicates that an average law student reads ten to thirty pages per hour (60 minutes), depending on the difficulty of the material. This guidance for estimating time to complete reading assignments does not include estimated time to complete additional study and preparatory work listed in subpart 2) below. 

2) As guidance for determining the length of time required to study and prepare for a course, academic literature and established Law School practice indicate that students are expected to spend at least three hours (180 minutes) per week per unit of credit. Outside study and preparatory work, exclusive of reading assignments, includes, but is not limited to, briefing cases, additional reading of treatises and course-related material, outlining, practice questions and examinations, CALI exercises, participation in study groups and review sessions. 

2.14(d)  Courses that have Regularly Scheduled Classroom or Direct Faculty Instruction and a Final Examination 

A. Regularly Scheduled Classroom or Direct Faculty Instruction.  Total classroom or direct faculty instruction time, exclusive of written examinations or final papers, is scheduled for 50 minutes per unit of credit, exclusive of breaks, per week for each week of the term of instruction.  By way of example, courses with regularly scheduled classroom or direct faculty instruction that meet during the Fall or Spring terms shall meet weekly for one 50-minute hour per week, or for some other combination of  minutes that equals 50 minutes multiplied by the total number of credits, for each of the fourteen weeks of the term.    

B. Hours of out-of-class student work. Professors teaching courses with regularly scheduled classroom or direct faculty instruction shall require outside student work that reasonably approximates a minimum of 120 minutes per course credit hour per week, multiplied by 15.  By way of example, professors teaching a two-credit course during the Fall or Spring term shall satisfy this standard if the time required to complete the weekly assignments reasonably approximates 240 minutes and the time required to study for the final exam reasonably approximates an additional 240 minutes.  Similarly, professors teaching a three-credit course during the Fall or Spring term shall satisfy this standard if the time required to complete the weekly assignments reasonably approximates 360 minutes a week and the time required to study for the final exam reasonably approximates an additional 360 minutes.

C.  Examinations, Final Papers, or Projects.

1. Comprehensive Finals.  If a single, comprehensive final exam is given, it must be scheduled during the examination period for no less than 60 minutes per unit of credit. Professors may, at their discretion, reserve additional time for completion of an examination.

2. Multiple Examinations.  If multiple examinations are given throughout a course, which may or may not include an examination given during the examination period, the aggregate time allotted for all examinations must equal no less than 60 minutes per unit of credit. If it is not practicable to schedule mid-term or other interim examinations outside of regular class meeting times, class time used for such examinations shall be made up so that the total amount of direct faculty instruction, exclusive of time spent in examinations, comports with Section 1.A.1 above.  Professors are not required to reschedule class time used for an examination, quizzes, or other test that is given for formative assessment (see Section 1.C.1.). 

3. Take-home Examinations.  If a take-home examination is given:

1)  The examination is scheduled to be completed during the examination period; and

2)  The time allowed for completion of the examination totals no less than 60 minutes per unit of credit.

2.14(e) Experiential Learning Courses, Courses that do not have Regularly Scheduled Classroom or Direct Faculty Instruction, and Courses that do not have a Final Examination 

A.  Writing-Intensive Courses.   Classroom time for first-year Legal Research & Writing, seminars,  and other upper-level writing courses may be scheduled so that class meeting times may vary from week to week.  .  For such courses, the total hours of time spent on classroom or direct faculty instruction, individual meetings with the professor, and out-of-class work, as defined in Section I.C., shall total at least 45 hours per unit of credit.  Similarly, for writing-intensive courses that do not require a final examination, the total hours of time spent on classroom or direct faculty instruction, individual meetings with the professor, and out-of-class work, as defined in Section I.C., shall total at least 45 hours per unit of credit.

B.  Simulation Courses. Courses that qualify as simulations may be scheduled so that class meeting times may vary from week to week or may not require a final examination.  For such courses, the total hours of classroom or direct faculty instruction, individual meetings with the professor, and out-of-class work, as defined in Section I.C. shall total at least 45 hours per unit of credit. 

C.  Distance Learning Courses.  Students may receive credit to the extent allowed by ABA Standards for distance learning courses that are in compliance with ABA Standards. For distance learning courses, except synchronous distance learning classes with regularly scheduled classroom or direct faculty instruction and a final examination, the total hours classroom or direct faculty instruction, if applicable, and out-of-class work shall total at least 45 hours per unit of credit.  For synchronous distance learning courses that have regularly scheduled classroom or direct faculty instruction and require a final examination, proof that the appropriate amount of work is required may be made by reference either to the standard set forth in Section II or under this section.  Students enrolled in distance learning courses, except synchronous distance learning courses that have regularly scheduled classroom or direct faculty instruction and a final examination, must submit detailed timesheets to their professor every two weeks. Credit may be withheld for any student who fails to comply.

D.  Clinics and Practicums.  For clinics and practicums, regardless of whether a final examination is given, the total hours of time spent on classroom or direct faculty instruction, individual meetings with the professor, direct clinic services, and out-of-class work, as defined in Section I.C., shall total at least 54 hours per unit of credit.  Students enrolled in clinics or practicums must complete required hours and submit time keeping records in accordance with established clinic policies.  Credit may be withheld for any student who fails to comply.

E.  Externships.  For externships the total hours of time spent on fieldwork shall equal at least 46 hours per unit of credit.  All externships shall also include a mandatory seminar, which shall not count towards the 46 hours of fieldwork.  Students enrolled in externships must complete required hours and submit time keeping records in accordance with established externship policies.  Credit may be withheld for any student who fails to comply.

F.  Other Courses.  All other courses, including courses that may not meet on a weekly basis and courses in which the scheduled total classroom or direct faculty instruction time does not satisfy the requirements of Section II, the total hours of classroom and out-of-class student work shall total at least 45 hours per unit of credit.  Students enrolled in such courses must submit detailed timesheets to their professor every two weeks. Credit may be withheld for any student who fails to comply.

2.14(f) Academic Activities.  The determination of credit hours and award of credit for academic activities shall be in accordance with the rules of this section

A.  Directed Research.  Directed Research credit may be given for one, two, or three units of credit.  Students shall submit detailed timesheets to their primary supervising faculty member every two weeks. Students must complete a minimum of 45 hours of research and writing work for one unit of credit, 90 hours of research and writing work for two units of credit, and 135 hours of research and writing work for three units of credit. Credit may be withheld for any student who fails to comply. Students who devote more than the minimum requisite hours will not receive extra credits. 

B.  Journal Participation.  Academic credit may be given for participation on the Business Law Journal, Joule, Duquesne Energy & Environmental Law Journal, Juris, and Law Review.  The maximum number of credits available for a particular term shall be determined by the Faculty.  Students shall demonstrate that they have worked sufficient hours to earn the designated credits by submitting detailed timesheets to their faculty supervisor every two weeks. Students must complete a minimum of 45 hours of journal-related work for each unit of credit.  Therefore, students must complete a minimum of 45 hours for one credit, 90 hours for two credits, and 135 hours for 3 credits.  Credit may be withheld for any student who fails to timely submit the required timesheets.  Students who devote more than the minimum requisite hours will not receive extra credits. 

C.  Interscholastic Competitions.  Academic credit may be awarded for participation in Appellate Moot Court and in Trial Advocacy Teams.  Students seeking such credit shall submit detailed timesheets to their supervising faculty member or competition coach every two weeks. Students must complete a minimum of 45 hours of work for one unit of credit and 90 hours of work for two units of credit.   Therefore, students must complete a minimum of 45 hours for one credit, 90 hours for two credits, and 135 hours for 3 credits.  Credit may be withheld for any student who fails to timely submit the required timesheets.  Students who devote more than the minimum requisite hours will not receive extra credits. 

To be eligible to compete in a trial advocacy competition, students must be in good academic standing. Students with a GPA below 2.0 will not be eligible to compete until the GPA is a 2.0 or higher.

2.14(g) Determination of hours of credit for courses taken in other colleges at Duquesne University

A.  Courses not taken as part of a Joint Degree.  As part of the approval process for allowing a non-joint-degree Law School student to enroll in a course in another college at Duquesne University, the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs shall obtain a copy of the course syllabus and written certification from the course instructor that it complies with Standard 310(b).

B.  Courses taken as part of a Joint Degree.  For non-law courses within Joint Degree programs offered by the Law School and other colleges at Duquesne University for which Law students will receive credit toward the J.D. degree, the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs shall obtain the syllabi of such courses and written certification from the course instructors that the courses comply with Standard 310(b).

2.14(h) Determination of hours of credit for courses taken at another law school by a Law School student at another ABA-approved law school, including hours of credit awarded to a transfer applicant

A. Cross Registration.  As a condition of approval of a Law student’s application to visit away or to cross register for a course offered at another law school, an official form the school offering the course must certify in writing to the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs that the units of credit for the course(s) to be taken comply with Standard 310(b).

B.  Transfers.  As a condition of approval by the Law School of transfer credits, an official from the school from which an applicant is seeking to transfer must certify in writing to the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs that the units of credit for the courses taken comply with Standard 310(b).

Article III: Examination Policies

The following regulations apply to all examinations. Violations of these regulations are considered infractions of the Disciplinary Code.

1. Examinees are not permitted to sit next to one another in any examination room but are to sit in alternate seats.

2. Examinees may only have the following items with them in the examination room during the course of any examination: laptop computers (refer to #12), writing pens, pencils, one copy of the examination, one copy of the examination bluebook or answer sheet, scratch paper provided by the Registrar’s Office (unless not permitted by the faculty member administering the exam), and such materials as may be specifically permitted by the faculty member administering the exam. If a calculator is permitted during an exam, one with memory is not permitted.

3. Examinees, when outside of the examination room, are not permitted to make reference during the course of an examination to any electronic devices, books, notes, outlines, or any other materials.

4. Examinees are not permitted to smoke, eat or drink any beverages in the examination room; however, bottled water is permitted. Smoking is prohibited in the School of Law and examinees are not permitted to leave the School of Law in order to smoke.

5. Examinees are not permitted to make or receive telephone calls during an examination.  Watches, smartphones and all other electronic devices are not permitted on your person during examinations. All devices must be turned off and placed in your backpack, locker, purse, or in the front of the exam room. Finding a prohibited device on a student’s person during an exam is grounds for receiving a grade of “F” on that examination.

6. Examinees may not remove their examinations, examination bluebooks, or answer sheets from the examination room.

7. Examinees are permitted to use the restrooms located in the Student Lounge area and on the third floor of the School of Law only. Only one person at a time is permitted to use restroom facilities. Examinees are not permitted to use any restrooms located in the Law Library.

8. Examinees are not permitted for any reason to leave the School of Law during an examination.

9. Examinees are not permitted to converse with anyone except a proctor during an examination.

10. Each examinee must physically turn in his/her examination, bluebook, or answer sheet to the assigned proctor in each examination room. An examinee may not exit the examination room until he/she has witnessed the logging-in process of his/her examination, bluebook, or answer sheet. Any examinee who fails to comply with this rule will receive a failing grade for the examination.

11. Examinees are not permitted to discuss any aspect of the examination with the faculty member who administered the exam prior to the grades being filed and posted in DORI for that examination. Students with concerns regarding the examination should contact the School of Law Registrar.

12. Examinees wishing to type their examinations by the use of laptop computers must furnish and properly maintain their own laptop computers and power cords. Students must have: (a) a laptop compatible with the latest version of SofTest software; (b) the newest version of SofTest software installed on their laptops; and (c) completed the SofTest Practice Exam by the deadline specified. . Students who fail to complete the Practice Exam within the specified time period will not be permitted to take their examinations on laptops. Any problems with a laptop during the exam may require a student to complete the exam in a bluebook. Additional regulations involving the use of laptop computers will be furnished to each examinee by the Registrar via your @duq.edu email account www.law.duq.edu/academics/registrar/exams/laptop-exams. Students will strictly adhere to Proctor instructions during exam periods. Students are responsible for fully reading and understanding their @duq.edu email and web site instructions for laptop exams to ensure the safety of their final exam files.

13. Students are not permitted to wear a hat, hoodie, or cap during any examination.

14. All bookbags must be placed in the front of the examination room near the proctors. Purses must be placed on the floor near individual seats.

15. If the exam is open book, all materials must be in clear sight of the proctors. Examinees must also run the SofTest Software. Examinees may not use notes on the laptop or the Internet during examinations, and are not permitted to access the Internet or other third-party sources (such as commercial outlines, hornbooks, etc.) during the course of the exam.

16. Once a student is completed with an examination, he or she should proceed to the student lounge or exit the building.

When registering for classes, each student is responsible for reviewing the exam schedule and for scheduling classes to avoid exam conflicts. Each student is to take exams as scheduled. If two exams in required courses are scheduled at the same time on the same day, impacted students should, at the earliest convenience of both the School of Law Registrar and students, meet with the School of Law Registrar to arrange for a time to take a makeup examination.

Other than provided above, examination schedules will not be altered and make-up exams will not be permitted except for mandatory religious obligations, a student’s serious illness or injury, labor and/or delivery of the student’s baby, or a death in the student’s immediate family.

In such an event, the student shall (i) notify the Assistant Dean of Students and the School of Law Registrar of the occurrence of the event as soon as possible, but no more than two days following the student’s discovery of the event, (ii) request a make-up exam, and (iii) provide written proof of the event to the School of Law Registrar within two days of initial notification. The Assistant Dean of Students will review the student’s request for a makeup exam and, for good cause shown, may approve the request and direct the Registrar to schedule a make-up examination.

Make-up examinations must be taken when scheduled by the School of Law Registrar.

Because the School of Law reserves the right to reschedule exams at any time during the exam period, students must not schedule personal obligations, travel, vacations, or other commitments at any time during the exam period.

The determination to cancel an exam due to inclement weather is made by the Dean and Provost. If an exam is canceled due to inclement weather, students are required to take the exam on the make-up date determined by the School of Law Registrar. In extraordinary circumstances, students may petition the Academic Status Committee for relief from this policy.

Article IV: Registration

The registration period for all first-year students, as indicated in the School of Law calendar, precedes the commencement of classes.

All first-year students must attend Orientation to complete all required forms and review any changes to their schedule. Registration for all first-year students is processed by the School of Law Registrar’s Office. First-year students may not change the course section to which they have been assigned. All first-year students’ registrations will be complete once students have taken their ID picture and the School of Law Registrar’s Office has received all official undergraduate and graduate transcripts from each school attended. All transcripts must include the words, “Degree Awarded” and must be issued by the University Registrar, and mailed directly to the School of Law. Hand-delivered transcripts are not acceptable. A student whose file is not complete will not be permitted to sit for any examination.

Tuition and fees may be paid in cash, by check, credit card (MasterCard or Discover), or by utilizing the University student financing program. Duquesne University does not mail out paper bills or statements. You can learn more about tuition requirements, ebills and payment options by going to duq.edu/admissions-and-aid/student-accountsbilling.

Upper-division students pre-register in the spring and fall of each academic year using their MultiPass accounts to access Self Service Banner in DORI.

Upper-division students may register for required and elective courses, regardless of division; however, day and evening students will be given registration preference for courses in their respective divisions. When considering cross registration options, students should bear in mind that day students who park full-time in a University garage will have their parking privileges reduced if more than 50 percent of their semester course credits are taken in the evening.

All required courses, elective courses, and the current curriculum are available online at duq.edu/law/registrar. Select Class Schedule and Curriculum to view the list.

The following required schedule of course offerings is designed to assure that every student will have an opportunity to register for all bar examination courses without experiencing any course or examination conflicts. Aside from summer sessions, the required courses must be taken in the mandatory sequence. In extraordinary circumstances, students may petition the Academic Status Committee for relief from this requirement.

Students are required to take the following courses during the second year: Constitutional Law I and II , Evidence, Corporate and Partnership Law  or Corporations I (fall) and Advanced Corporate Law and Business Entities or Corporations II (spring), and one of the following two courses: (1) Criminal Procedure: Fundamentals or (2) Criminal Procedure: The Police Function. Students must register for the same professor and section for Constitutional Law I and II. The following elective courses may be taken in any upper-level year, but it is recommended that they be taken in the second year: Basic Federal Income Taxation, Estates and Trusts, and Family Law.

Students who are ranked in the bottom quarter of their first-year class are required to take a 2-credit Advanced Legal Reasoning course in the fall semester of their second year of study, regardless of whether they are on probationary status.

Students are required to take the following courses during the third year: Professional Responsibility, Sales and Leased Goods. Additionally, any student ranked in the bottom third of the class at the end of the first year of Law School is required to take Core/Applied Competencies I and II. Students ranked in the bottom half of the class may petition to take Core/Applied Competencies I and II. Core Competencies I and II are recommended for students not taking Core/Applied Competencies I and II. The following elective courses may be taken in any upperlevel year, but it is recommended that they be taken in the third year: Federal Civil Procedure, Pennsylvania Civil Procedure, Pennsylvania State Constitutional Law, Conflict of Laws, and Employment Discrimination.

Students who ranked in the bottom third of their first year class are required to take Core/Applied Competencies I & II and additional at-risk students will also be registered for these courses, at the discretion of the Director of Bar Services.

Students are required to take the following courses during the second year: Criminal Law, Criminal Procedure: Fundamentals or Criminal Procedure: The Police Function, Property I and II, and Constitutional Law I and II. Students must register for the same professors and sections for Property I and II and Constitutional Law I and II.

Students who are ranked in the bottom quarter of their first-year class are required to take a 2-credit Advanced Legal Reasoning course in the fall semester of their second year of study, regardless of whether they are on probationary status.

Students are required to take the following courses during the third year: Evidence, Corporate and Partnership Law or Corporations I (fall) and Advanced Corporate Law and Business Entities and Corporations II (spring). The following elective courses may be taken in any upper-level year, but it is recommended that they be taken in the third year: Basic Federal Income Taxation, Estates and Trusts, and Employment Discrimination.

Students are required to take the following courses during the fourth year: Professional Responsibility, Sales and Leased Goods, Core/Applied Competencies I and II. Students may petition for waiver of the requirement to take Core/Applied Competencies I and II. The following elective courses may be taken in any upper-level year, but it is recommended that they be taken in the fourth year: Federal Civil Procedure, Pennsylvania Civil Procedure, Pennsylvania State Constitutional Law, Conflict of Laws, Employment Discrimination, and Family Law.

Year of Study

Semester Credit Minimum

Semester Credit Maximum

Second-year day

10 credits

18 credits

Third-year day

10 credits

18 credits

Second-year evening

8 credits

13 credits

Third-year evening

8 credits

13 credits

Fourth-year evening

8 credits

13 credits

Second-year part-time

8 credits

13 credits

Third-year part-time

8 credits

13 credits

Fourth-year part-time

8 credits

13 credits

 

The maximum credit limitations described above include any courses involving approved joint degree programs whether taken inside or outside of the School of Law. These credit limitations will be strictly enforced, without exception.

Although a student may register for an unlimited number of Summer Session courses, no student may use more than a total of seven (7) Summer Session credit hours to fulfill his/her graduation credit requirement. This credit limitation is applicable to any Summer Session offering in which credits may be earned. Summer Session offerings are subject to the auditing policy described in this Bulletin. In addition, any student receiving permission to audit a Summer Session course is subject to the normal tuition, fee charges and attendance requirements. Summer Session credits are not permitted to accelerate a student’s graduation date [three (3) academic years for a full-time student and four (4) academic years for a part-time day or evening student], reduce annual tuition, or reduce semester residency requirements.

Although a student may register for an unlimited number of non-classroom courses and activities, i.e., Law Review and other journals, Moot Court Competitions, Directed Research, Joint Degree courses, and Clinical Programs, no student may utilize more than a total of eighteen (18) such credits to fulfill the graduation credit requirement.

No more than six (6) of the eighteen (18) non-classroom credits may be earned from service on a school of law publication.

No more than ten (10) of the eighteen (18) non-classroom credits may be earned from participation in Appellate and Trial Moot Court competitions.  Supervising faculty must approve all credits for competition participation. If a student’s effort in support of a competition team is commensurate with the effort of individual team members, a supervising faculty member may award the student one (1) credit if the student devotes a minimum of forty-five (45) hours to support a competition team or two (2) credits if the student devotes a minimum of ninety (90) hours to support a team.

Students shall not be granted more than a total of 15 credit hours toward the J.D. degree for courses qualifying under this Policy.  See Article IV, 4.12. [hyperlink to 4.12]

 

Courses eligible for auditing are determined by the School of Law. No student shall be permitted to audit a course that is examined on the Pennsylvania Bar Examination.

Subject to the approval of the Academic Status Committee, a student may be permitted to audit any other course for good cause. All courses that are permitted to be audited are subject to the normal attendance requirements. No student shall be permitted to sit in a class without approval from the Academic Status Committee.

A faculty/adjunct member may not give a student permission to audit or sit in on a course. Audited courses may not be converted to matriculated credits.

Auditing a course during any semester will not reduce the credit requirement for graduation or the residency credit requirement. In addition, no student shall be permitted to audit more than one (1) course per semester.

A student will not be allowed to audit a course if the credits assigned to the audited course, when added to the other credits for which the student is registered, exceed the maximum permitted to be taken during the semester.

All requests to the Academic Status Committee must be in writing, signed and delivered to the Office of the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs. .  Email requests must be sent from the student’s official .duq email account, and the student bears the burden of ensuring receipt.

After registration in the spring for courses to be taken in the following fall semester, upper-division students may drop or add courses any time through the end of the first week of classes in the fall. After registration in the fall for courses to be taken in the following spring semester, upper-division students may drop or add courses from mid-December (beginning on a date determined by the School of Law Registrar) through the end of the first week of classes in January. There is no drop/add period for Summer Sessions. Students who have not officially dropped a course for which they have previously registered will receive a failing grade in that course.

Students who are not officially enrolled in a course will not receive credit or a grade for that course.

A course which is dropped during the drop/add period will not appear on a student’s transcript.

Students may not withdraw from an upper-division course after the normal drop/add period without the approval of the Academic Status Committee. If the Academic Status Committee permits a student to withdraw from a course, a “W” will be entered next to the name of the course on the student’s transcript to reflect this action. Withdrawals from courses after the drop/add period are only granted by the Academic Status Committee for rare and compelling reasons. Under no circumstances may a student withdraw from a course after the last day of class for that course. All requests to the Academic Status Committee must be in writing, signed, and delivered to the Office of the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs. .  Email requests must be sent from the student’s official .duq email account, and the student bears the burden of ensuring receipt.

Registration for clinical and externship courses is conducted during the School of Law’s registration period.

The following are important School of Law requirements that apply to clinical programs:

1. Students may not participate in more than one Clinical Program (in-house clinic, specialized externship program or general externship) at a time, except as approved by the Academic Status Committee at the recommendation of the Director of Clinical Legal Education, but may participate in more than one Clinical Program throughout their legal education.

2. Students who are on probationary status due to a failure to achieve a grade point average of 2.00 after their first year of study may not register for any Clinical Program in their second year.

3. Clinics are filled on a “first-come, first-served basis”; however, students who will be third-year day or fourthyear evening students are given preference in enrollment in Clinical Programs.

4. Students seeking externships with qualified placements must first consult with the Clinical Legal Education Department. No general externship will be approved for credit unless the externship site and the individual student’s placement are approved by the Clinical Legal Education Director and Associate Dean of Academic Affairs prior to the student beginning work at the placement. No exceptions will be permitted.

5. Students enrolled in in-house clinics and specialized externship programs must complete 140 hours by the end of each semester. Students enrolled in yearlong in-house clinics or specialized externship programs may not start the spring semester with a deficit in hours completed.

The School of Law’s Concentration Program recognizes students who successfully complete multiple elective courses that are relevant to one or more of the following practice areas:  

Business Law, General Practice, Government Practice, and Litigation. By providing students with an opportunity to focus on various areas of practice, the Program plays a role in achieving the School of Law’s learning outcomes, which focus on developing student knowledge, skills, and professional identity. The Concentration Program’s framework also organizes the majority of the School of Law’s course offerings in a way that makes the curriculum accessible to students.

 

Currently enrolled students may choose to comply with the previous Concentration Program or the current, revised Concentration Program, through the end of the 2018-2019 academic year.

Beginning in the fall of 2019, the revised Concentration Program will be the only option available to students.

 

Each Concentration has multiple tracks, as follows:

Business Law

• Corporate Governance and Transactions

• Energy and Environment

• Health Law

• Intellectual Property

General Practice

• Basic Track

• Estate Planning and Tax

• Family Law

• Real Property

 

Government

• Basic Track

• Energy and Environment

• Health Law

• Mission and Moral Life

• Public Service and Community Engagement

 

Litigation

• Civil Litigation

• Criminal Litigation

 

Procedures:

Students are not required to complete a Concentration in order to graduate. Students who are interested in pursuing a Concentration have the option of completing a Concentration Track, or a

General Concentration, by following the procedures set forth below.

I. A student who desires to complete one or more Concentration Track(s) must comply with the following requirements for each Track:

 

  1. The student must complete a Concentration Intent Form, which is available on the Law School Registrar’s website, and return it to the Registrar’s office no later than the end of the semester preceding the semester in which a student graduates. In most cases, this will be the Fall semester of a student’s final year of study.

 

  1. To have a Concentration Track verified, a student must complete the following steps:

a. Submit a Concentration Intent Form to the Registrar in a timely manner;

b. Complete no less than four elective courses included in a Concentration Track, including any course(s) that are required for the Track;

c. Receive a grade of “C” or better in each of the four courses; and

d. Submit a completed Concentration Verification Form for review and approval to the faculty advisor for the Concentration Track.

 

After approving the Concentration Verification Form, the faculty advisor will forward it to the Registrar. Upon receipt of a completed Concentration Verification Form, the Registrar will make a notation of the Concentration Track on the student’s transcript.

 

II. A student who is not able to complete a Concentration Track due to scheduling conflicts, or for other reasons, may complete a General Concentration in any of the four Concentration areas. A student who desires to complete a General Concentration must comply with the following requirements:

 

1. The student must complete a Concentration Intent Form, which is available on the Law School Registrar’s website, and return it to the Registrar’s office no later than the end of the semester preceding the semester in which a student graduates. In most cases, this will be the Fall semester of a student’s final year of study.

2. To have a General Concentration verified, a student must complete the following steps:

a. Submit a Concentration Intent Form to the Registrar in a timely manner;

b. Complete no less than four elective courses included in one of the School of

Law’s four Concentrations (Business, General Practice, Government, or

Litigation). At least one of the four courses must be listed as a required course

in one of the Concentration’s Tracks;

c. Receive a grade of “C” or better in each of the four courses; and

d. Submit a completed Concentration Verification Form to the faculty advisor for

the Concentration Track in which the student’s required course is listed.

 

After approving the Concentration Verification Form, the faculty advisor will forward it to the Registrar. Upon receipt of a completed Concentration Verification Form, the Registrar will make a notation of the General Concentration on the student’s transcript, including the area of concentration.

 

III. A student may count an unlisted course toward a Concentration Track if the student obtains the written approval of the faculty advisor for the Concentration Track. The student should maintain a copy of the approval, and attach it to the Concentration Verification Form before submitting it to the faculty advisor.

 

For details on the requirements of the various Concentration Tracks visit: www.law.duq.edu/sites/default/files/documents/Registrar/Concentrations/Concentration%20Composite%203-27-17.pdf. [hyperlink to concentration information online]

A. A distance education course is one in which students are separated from the faculty member or each other for more than one-third of the instruction and the instruction involves the use of technology to support regular and substantive interaction among students and between the students and the faculty member, either synchronously or asynchronously. Courses designated by the School of Law as “online courses” are distance education courses.

B. Students shall not be granted more than a total of 15 credit hours toward the J.D. degree for courses qualifying under this Policy.

C. Students may not register for a distance education course until they have completed instruction equivalent to 28 credit hours toward the J.D. degree.

D. No J.D. student will be allowed to enroll in more than two distance education courses in a single semester without the advance written approval of the Academic Status Committee. In making a determination on a student’s request, the Academic Status Committee shall consider the student’s situation, including the reason(s) why the student seeks to take more than two distance education courses in that semester.

E. No student may receive credit towards the J.D. degree for distance education courses that are not offered and are approved by the School of Law.

F. The School of Law shall notify students at the time of registration or enrollment in the distance education course if there are any additional student charges associated with enrollment in the distance education course, including, but not limited to, charges associated with the verification of student identity.

G. All students who participate in a distance education course shall participate in a mandatory orientation program which will, at a minimum, train students in the technology used, along with distance education protocols and etiquette.

H. All student work that occurs in a distance education course may be monitored, recorded, and reviewed by the faculty member teaching the course, and other School of Law personnel, as necessary.

I. Students enrolled in distance education courses must abide by the procedures and policies established in the School of Law Academic Bulletin.

Any student who has matriculated into a School of Law-approved Joint Degree Program is required to register and complete the first year of study exclusively at the School of Law.

Evening and part-time day students who are enrolled in a Joint Degree Program may begin their outside graduate study during the summer following the conclusion of their first year at the School of Law, and may not take any further outside graduate courses until they have completed their second year of study at the School of Law. 

Students may not matriculate into a Joint Degree Program without the advance approval of the Academic Status Committee. These requests for approval from the Academic Status Committee must be typed, signed, and delivered to the Office of the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs. .  Email petitions must be sent from the student’s official .duq email account, and the student bears the burden of ensuring receipt.

Any student who has substantially completed the requirements for a degree in another school or department of the University with which the School of Law has a Joint Degree Program may not register as a Joint Degree candidate. The requirements and regulations concerning Joint Degree Programs involving the School of Law are available online at duq.edu/academics/schools/law/academic-programs.

The School of Law Registrar must receive a copy of any Joint Degree Program student’s acceptance letter into the non-Juris Doctor program.

 In order to transfer credits for the joint degree to the School of Law, it is the responsibility of the student to request that an official transcript from the University Registrar be mailed to the Registrar’s Office in the School of Law.

Joint degree students must also inform the School of Law Registrar which courses are to be transferred to the School of Law. The School of Law does not accept any core courses for transfer credits. Joint degree credits are considered non-classroom credits. Joint degree candidates in the day division must be registered for a minimum of 10 School of Law credits per semester and those in the evening or part-time division must be registered for a minimum of 8 School of Law credits to maintain residency.

With the approval of the Academic Status Committee, credits earned at another law school will be accepted by the School of Law if the criteria below are satisfied. Grades earned in courses accepted for transfer credit will not be included in the computation of a student’s grade point average.

All of the following criteria must be met before the School of Law will accept transfer credits:

1. The credits must be earned at an ABA-accredited law school,

2. The grade earned in any course for which transfer credits are sought must be, at a minimum, the equivalent of the School of Law’s grade of “C,”

3. Upper-level course credits must be for courses that are not included in the School of Law’s curriculum, and,

4. No more than twenty-nine (29) transfer credits will be accepted toward satisfaction of the Juris Doctor degree; provided, however, that no student may enroll in more than six (6) summer session elective credits either at the School of Law or at other ABA-accredited law schools.

Grades earned in courses accepted for transfer credit from other accredited law schools will not appear on a student’s transcript, but transfer credits will be shown.

Duquesne University has an articulation agreement with the University of Pittsburgh that facilitates registration and the transfer of credits between the two institutions. The agreement has been approved by the Pittsburgh Council of Higher Education. Grades earned in courses taken at the University of Pittsburgh Law School that are accepted for transfer by the School of Law, under the criteria set forth above, will appear on a student’s transcript, and the grade will be included in the computation of a student’s grade point average.  See 4.14[hyperlink to 4.14] for procedures for transferring course credits.

Article V: School of Law Disciplinary Code

The Duquesne University School of Law Disciplinary Code (Code) shall apply to every person who has registered for credit or is otherwise in attendance at the Duquesne University School of Law (School) and shall further apply to such persons up to and including the receipt of the Juris Doctor degree. Such persons shall be referred to as “students” and such term shall be construed to mean any person subject to the jurisdiction of this Code.

A. Academic Offenses

1. Offenses Involving Dishonesty

(a) Examinations

(1) A student shall not cheat, which shall include giving, seeking or receiving unauthorized aid in any form before, during or after an examination.

(2) A student shall not use any unauthorized materials.

(3) A student shall not violate the examination regulations.

(b) Work Product A student shall not commit Intentional Plagiarism nor in any way whatsoever submit or represent another’s work as the student’s own work in connection with any curricular or extracurricular activity or function sponsored, funded or supported by the School.

(c) Misrepresentation A student shall not furnish false information or fail to disclose information to any employee of the School, or in connection with any law school application, or in connection with any curricular or extracurricular activity or function sponsored, funded or supported by the School.

(d) Attendance A student shall not furnish false information with regard to any attendance sheet, certification of attendance, or other method of monitoring attendance at the School.

2. Other Academic Offenses

(a) A student shall not commit Unintentional Plagiarism.

(b) A student shall not talk, or communicate in any way, with any person during any examination other than a proctor or professor administering the examination.

 (c) A student shall not fail to comply with any rule of comportment established for a class by the professor in that class.

3. Definitions

(a) Plagiarism: Plagiarism shall mean the appropriation, in whole or in part, without full and clear attribution, of the writings of another, or the ideas or language of another.

(b) Intentional Plagiarism: Intentional Plagiarism shall mean plagiarism with the intent of passing such appropriated matter off as the product of the student. The verbatim, or near verbatim, copying of the words or language of another without appropriate attribution, including failure to indicate that the student is quoting from the cited source, shall be conclusive evidence of Intentional Plagiarism.

(c) Unintentional Plagiarism: Unintentional plagiarism shall mean all acts of plagiarism other than those that constitute Intentional Plagiarism. Unintentional Plagiarism shall include, but not be limited to, consistent failure to cite to the appropriate authority; where pervasive, however, such consistent failure to cite to the appropriate authority shall constitute Intentional Plagiarism.

(d) Examination: Examination(s) shall include, but not be limited to, substitutes for in-school examinations, e.g., outside graded or for-credit work, such as drafting problems and exercises, papers, take-home examinations, quizzes and tests, as well as traditional, in school examinations, quizzes and tests for credit work.

B. Offenses Involving Property

1. Offenses against School Property

(a) A student shall not tear, mutilate, mark or otherwise damage or destroy School property.

(b) A student shall not conceal library materials or other School property.

 (c) A student shall not remove books or library materials from the library without proper authorization, nor shall a student remove any other School property from the premises or possession of the School without authorization.

 2. Offenses against Property of Other Students

A student shall not damage or take without permission, the notes, books, papers, or other property of another student.

C. Other Offenses

1. A student shall not engage in any conduct or act that constitutes a violation of the Pennsylvania Rules of Professional Conduct, or that constitutes a crime, or that would subject a person to criminal sanctions or penalties under the laws, either common or statutory, of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania or the United States of America.

2. A student shall not fail or refuse to obey or to respond to any rule, regulation, directive or command given by any member of the Faculty or the Administration, or the Director of the School’s Law Library, in the exercise of his or her responsibility or duties to the School. 

3. A student shall not upon proper request of the Dean, the Disciplinary Officer, or the Disciplinary Committee refuse to cooperate or testify in any investigation or proceeding involving a violation of this Code.

4. A student shall not aid, abet, cause or otherwise facilitate another’s violation of any provision of this Code.

5. A student shall not violate any of the rules of the School of Law Library including, but not limited to, rules prohibiting eating and smoking.

6. A student shall not abuse any means of electronic research or electronic data retrieval or storage in use at the School, including, but not limited to, unauthorized entry into a file, either to read or to change the data; unauthorized transfer or copying of a file or of file data; unauthorized use of another person’s identification number or password; use of such facilities to interfere with the work of another student; use of such facilities to send or receive obscene or pornographic material(s); use of such facilities to send harassing or abusing material(s); or use of such facilities to interfere with the normal operation of the School’s computer system.

D. Continuing Obligation to Disclose Information

Because of the high ethical standards to which lawyers are held, all students attending the School of Law have a continuing obligation to disclose immediately any and all circumstances and events occurring after the date of submission of their School of Law application until the date of their graduation which may bear on their character and fitness to practice law. This includes, but is not limited to, matters related to the questions listed below that are asked on the School of Law’s application for admission.

1. Have you ever been expelled, dismissed, suspended or disciplined by any college or university, including any law school?

2. Have you ever been arrested, charged, cited, accused or prosecuted for any crime by a law enforcement agency, other than a minor traffic violation (i.e., parking or speeding citations)? You must answer “Yes” even if the offence was dismissed, vacated or expunged from your record, or was a juvenile offense, even if the records are sealed. Failure to fully disclose is often more serious than the acts that gave rise to the offense itself.

These disclosures should be made in writing to the Assistant Dean of Students. Failure to comply with this obligation is an offense under this code.

A. Commencement of Proceedings

Proceedings shall be commenced by the filing of a complaint with the Dean, which shall occur upon delivery of the complaint to the office of the Dean.

B. Complaints

1. Any person may initiate a complaint by filing a signed written statement with the Disciplinary Officer of the School, who shall have been designated by the Dean of the School. The Disciplinary Officer shall investigate the statement and determine whether probable cause exists for the filing of a complaint and whether a complaint should be filed in the name of the School.

2. Within thirty (30) days after any person files a statement with the Disciplinary Officer, the Disciplinary Officer shall either dismiss the statement or file a complaint. The Dean may grant one thirty (30) day extension of time within which the Disciplinary Officer must act. Failure to file a timely complaint will constitute dismissal of the statement. If the Disciplinary Officer finds that there is probable cause to file a complaint and that a complaint should be filed in the name of the School, the Disciplinary Officer shall file the complaint.

3. A complaint may be filed by the Dean, the Director of the School’s Law Library, or a member of the Faculty (collectively a “Complaining Faculty Member”). A Complaining Faculty Member may also initiate a complaint by filing a statement with the Disciplinary Officer. If the Complaining Faculty Member files the complaint, the Complaining Faculty Member shall serve as the Disciplinary Officer unless the Complaining Faculty Member recuses himself or herself.

4. If a complaint is filed by either the Disciplinary Officer or a Complaining Faculty Member, the Dean shall forward the complaint to the Disciplinary Committee, which shall review the complaint and determine whether probable cause is present. If the Disciplinary Committee determines that the complaint is sufficient, proceedings shall continue. Otherwise, the complaint shall be dismissed.

5. If the Disciplinary Committee finds that the complaint is sufficient, the Dean shall cause a copy of the complaint to be delivered to the accused student. Delivery shall be deemed complete by placing a copy of the complaint in the accused student’s mailbox or student folder, if any, and by sending a copy by first class mail to the accused student’s last known address as set forth in the School’s official records.

 C. Election

1. Except as otherwise provided, the accused student shall make an irrevocable election within ten (10) school days after delivery of the complaint (“Election Period”) to plead guilty before the Dean and to accept the penalty imposed by the Dean or to have the matter heard by the Disciplinary Committee.

2. The election shall be made in writing and shall be delivered to the Dean.

3. If no election is made, the accused student shall be deemed to have elected as of the last day of the Election Period to have the matter heard by the Disciplinary Committee.

4. The Dean shall have the discretion in any case to decline to accept a guilty plea. In such an event, the matter shall be referred to the Disciplinary Committee for disposition.

5. The Dean may impose any penalty authorized by Subparagraph 2 of Paragraph A of Article IV. The penalty imposed by the Dean is final and unappealable.

D. Hearing

1. Unless the Dean accepts a guilty plea, the Dean shall notify the Chairperson of the Disciplinary Committee to schedule a hearing. The Chairperson of the Disciplinary Committee shall notify the accused student of the time and place of the hearing. The hearing shall be held not more than thirty (30) days, nor less than ten (10) days after election by the accused student.

2. At the close of the hearing, the Disciplinary Committee shall either dismiss the matter or adjudicate the accused student guilty and impose any penalty, or any combination of penalties, authorized by Article IV of the Code. The decision and penalty imposed by the Disciplinary Committee is final and unappealable.

E. Manner of Hearing

1. An accused student may retain legal counsel or other advisors to assist in his or her defense. Regardless of whether the accused student chooses to retain legal counsel or other advisors, the Disciplinary Officer shall present the School’s case.

 2. If the accused student is represented by legal counsel at the hearing, the Disciplinary Officer shall act in a manner similar to a prosecutor in a criminal case.

3. If the accused student is not represented by legal counsel, the Disciplinary Officer shall:

(a) be present at the hearing and shall present the School’s case;

 (b) be entitled to call whatever witnesses are necessary to present the School’s case and to question those witnesses and to question any witnesses called by the accused student;

(c) be entitled to introduce any evidence necessary to the School’s case.

 4. If the accused student is not represented by counsel, the Disciplinary Officer shall not question the accused student at the hearing.

5. The accused student shall notify the Disciplinary Officer in writing at least five (5) days before the hearing whether the accused student intends to contest the charges or to plead guilty. If the accused student fails to notify the Disciplinary Officer of his or her intent or fails to attend the hearing, all allegations contained in the complaint shall be deemed admitted, and the Disciplinary Committee shall impose any penalty authorized by Article IV.

6. The accused student, the Disciplinary Officer, or the Disciplinary Committee may call any witness or question any witness, including the accused student, as to any facts associated with the alleged violation(s) as set forth in the complaint. In addition to such questioning, the accused student may reply orally or in writing or both to the complaint. Either the accused student or the Disciplinary Officer or the Disciplinary Committee may introduce any non-testimonial evidence. Evidence shall not be limited to that admissible under rules of evidence in force in Pennsylvania or at common law or in the Courts of the United States.

7. The Chairperson of the Disciplinary Committee shall preside at the Hearing.

8. The Chairperson of the Disciplinary Committee, in the exercise of his or her discretion may, before the expiration of such period, extend the time in which any act required to be done under this Code must be accomplished. The accused student and the Disciplinary Officer shall be informed or notified of any such extension.

9. The hearing shall be taped.

10. The proceedings may be transcribed at the option and expense of the party requesting transcripts.

11. A violation of the Code must be proved by a preponderance of the evidence.

12. The decision of a majority of the members of the Disciplinary Committee present shall be sufficient to decide or dismiss a case.

13. Any matter brought before the Disciplinary Committee shall be considered adjudicated when:

(a) The Disciplinary Committee renders its decision; or

(b) The Disciplinary Committee accepts a plea from the accused student.

F. Disciplinary Committee

The Disciplinary Committee shall be composed of seven (7) members, five (5) of whom shall be full-time Faculty members, excluding the Dean, and two (2) of whom shall be students. The Faculty members shall be selected by the Dean to serve for a term of one year. The students shall be appointed annually by the President of the Student Bar Association. Five members of the Disciplinary Committee, four of whom must be Faculty, shall constitute a quorum for the purpose of hearing a case. A quorum must be present at each Disciplinary Committee session. If for any reason there are not sufficient members to constitute a quorum to hear a particular case, the Dean shall appoint as many Faculty alternate members as may be necessary, and the President of the Student Bar Association shall appoint as many alternate members as may be necessary. The Dean, in the Dean’s discretion, may appoint additional Disciplinary Committees.

G. Disciplinary Officer

The Disciplinary Officer shall be a full-time Faculty member, excluding the Dean and the Disciplinary Committee members. The Dean shall select the Disciplinary Officer to serve for a term of one year. The Dean, in the Dean’s discretion, may appoint additional Disciplinary Officers.

H. Pleas

1. An accused student is permitted to plea bargain. Any plea negotiations shall be conducted between the accused student, or counsel for the accused student, and the Disciplinary Officer. In any matter brought by a Complaining Faculty Member, the Disciplinary Officer shall not agree to any proposed plea bargain without the approval of the Complaining Faculty Member.

2. If the accused student and the Disciplinary Officer agree on the terms of a proposed plea bargain, the Disciplinary Officer shall present the terms of the proposed plea bargain to the Disciplinary Committee at a hearing for approval by the Disciplinary Committee. The accused student and his or her legal counsel, if any, shall attend the hearing at which the proposed plea bargain is presented to the Disciplinary Committee.

3. The Disciplinary Committee may accept or reject the proposed plea bargain. The decision of a majority of the Disciplinary Committee members present shall be sufficient to decide whether to accept or reject the plea bargain. If the Disciplinary Committee rejects the proposed plea bargain, the proposed plea bargain shall be dismissed.

4. If the proposed plea bargain is dismissed, the Disciplinary Committee shall hear the charges stated in the complaint. If the plea bargain is dismissed, the accused student’s offer to plead guilty to one or more violations of the Code shall be considered as made for purposes of settlement only and shall not be indicative of the accused student’s guilt. Any evidence presented during the plea bargaining stage of the case shall not be grounds for recusing any member of the Disciplinary Committee or the Disciplinary Officer.

5. Acceptance of a plea bargain shall be considered an adjudication of the accused student’s guilt with respect to the charges set forth in the plea bargain.

A. The following penalties may be imposed:

1. By the Disciplinary Committee

(a) Restitution;

(b) Private Reprimand;

(c) Public Reprimand;

(d) Failing Grade or Grades, in the case of any conduct relating to a specific course or courses;

(e) Suspension, for such period or periods as the Disciplinary Committee deems appropriate;

(f) Permanent Expulsion, which shall include the denial of a degree and any credit for courses taken at the School. Permanent Expulsion shall require the vote of five (5) members of the Disciplinary Committee, four (4) of whom must be faculty.

(g) Any combination of any or all of the foregoing.

2. By the Dean

(a) Those penalties set forth in Subparagraphs (a) through (d) of Paragraph A.1. of Article IV.

(b) Suspension, for a period not to exceed one year; and

(c) Any combination of any or all of the foregoing.

 B. If a student is found to have committed an offense described in Article II.A.2(b) of this Code, the student may be subject to one of the following penalties, which may be in addition to any penalties that may be imposed by either the Disciplinary Committee or the Dean:

1. The permanent withholding of any grade or any credit for the course in which the examination was given, constituting a withdrawal from the course, or

2. Re-examination in the course on the next date that such examination (whether a midyear or final) in that course is regularly scheduled. There will be no “make-up” or special examination. The student shall receive credit for the course and be awarded the grade earned on that re-examination. The penalty shall be imposed without regard to the effect it may have on the student’s graduation from the School or the date thereof.

C. Mandatory Penalties

1. If a student is found to have committed an offense described in Article II.A.1(a) or II.A.1(b) of this Code, the student shall be subject to a mandatory minimum penalty of a one semester suspension, which penalty shall be in addition to any penalties that may be imposed by the Disciplinary Committee or the Dean in accordance with the Code.

 2. If a student is found to have committed an offense described in Article II.A.1(a), Article II.A.1(b), or Article II.A.2(a) of this Code in any course in which a grade is given, the student shall be given a failing grade (an “F”) in the course, which penalty shall be in addition to any penalties that may be imposed by the Disciplinary Committee or the Dean in accordance with this Code.

D. In lieu of any non-mandatory penalty provided by this Code, the Disciplinary Committee or the Dean, as the case may be, may impose any reasonable condition on a student or on a student’s conduct, and may further prescribe those penalties that shall be imposed in the event of a failure to comply with such condition.

E. All penalties imposed under this Code shall take effect immediately unless the Disciplinary Committee or the Dean shall specifically provide otherwise.

A. A record of every disciplinary action taken against any student shall be maintained in the office of the Dean. If the Disciplinary Committee shall find that a student has committed an offense under this Code, or a student shall plead guilty to having committed an offense under this Code, such fact and the language of the Code section violated shall be set forth on the transcript of the student.  The Disciplinary Committee may recommend to the Dean that a student’s transcript not contain such a notation if the conduct of the student did not involve knowing, intentional or purposeful dishonesty. The Dean may, in his or her sole discretion, accept or reject that recommendation.

B. Upon the final conclusion of a disciplinary proceeding against a student, the Dean shall by letter advise the party filing the complaint and the accused student as to the ultimate disposition of the case, including the sanction imposed, if any.

C. The Dean shall issue a public notice, to be posted in the School of Law building, informing the student body of the adjudication of the Disciplinary Committee, the acceptance of a guilty plea, or the dismissal of disciplinary charges, omitting the name of the student. The form of such notice shall be as follows: Disciplinary Notice

1. A Complaint was filed on [date] alleging that a student had violated [provision] of the School of Law Disciplinary Code. [Provision] provides that “[a] student shall not . . . “

2. After a hearing, the Disciplinary Committee dismissed the charges.

[or] 2. The Disciplinary Committee adjudged that the student had violated [provision] of the School of Law Disciplinary Code. [Provision] provides that “[a] student shall not . . . “ The Disciplinary Committee ordered that the student [description of penalty].

[or] 2. The student pleaded guilty to violating [provision] of the School of Law Disciplinary Code. [Provision] provides that “[a] student shall not ....” The Dean [Disciplinary Committee] ordered that the student [description of penalty]. Date Dean

 

                                                                                                                                                           

Date                                                                                                     Dean

A. This Code shall be effective for academic years commencing with the academic year in which it is adopted by the Faculty.

B. This Code may be amended only by the Faculty. Amendments to this Code may be proposed at any time by the Dean, by an Associate or Assistant Dean, or by any Faculty member of the School. The Student Bar Association may also propose amendments. Amendments shall be considered at regularly scheduled faculty meetings and shall be effective for the academic year of adoption, unless the Faculty shall direct otherwise.

C. Except as provided in this Code, and in accordance with the Duquesne University Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities and Conduct, the Duquesne University Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities and Conduct also shall apply to the extent that it is not inconsistent with the terms of this Code. In the case of any inconsistency, this Code shall control.

D. Unless specifically stated otherwise, all time periods shall be calculated by including both school days and non-school days and by excluding exam days and shall begin on the day following the occurrence of the action that precipitates the time period. If any time period expires on a non-school day, such time period shall be deemed to have expired on the first school day following the date of actual expiration. For purposes of counting days, Saturdays and Sundays shall be considered as non-school days.

Article VI: Administrative Policies

First-year students should be prepared, once registered, to pay all charges for tuition, fees, and room and board, if applicable. Upper-division students must pay all charges for tuition, fees, and room and board, if applicable, as per the terms of the invoice issued by the University for each semester. A student who is in debt to the University at the end of any semester is not eligible to sit for examinations, attend any classes during the succeeding semester, register for the next academic year, or receive an official transcript until his/her indebtedness has been satisfied.

Duquesne University School of Law does not permit any student to graduate or participate in the graduation ceremony if the student’s tuition, fees, or room and board debt has not been paid in full.

For those students who are financially unable to pay the full semester’s charges in advance, the University offers a student financing program. Students desiring payment of their tuition and other charges for the semester by installments should contact Duquesne University’s Student Financial Aid Office or Student Account Office in the University Administration Building. Loan programs for law students are not administered by the School of Law. Students who wish to apply for student loans should contact the University Financial Aid Office. The Financial Aid and Student Accounts Offices are located in the University Administration Building.

Tuition refunds are based upon the date of a student’s withdrawal from school. The date of withdrawal is the date on which the Academic Status Committee receives the student’s typed and signed notice of withdrawal. All notices of withdrawal should be delivered to the office of the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs or the School of Law Registrar. Permission to withdraw will not be granted to any student who has not fulfilled all of his/her financial obligations to the University. Any scholarship recipient, including a recipient of a School of Law Academic Scholarship, who withdraws from the School of Law, is not entitled to any part of his/her award. A student who withdraws from the School of Law no later than four weeks after the beginning of the semester will receive a partial refund of tuition. Fees and acceptance deposits are not refundable. Tuition refunds will be made according to the following schedule:

Date of Withdrawal       

Refund
Before school begins through add/drop 100%
During the first 2 weeks of classes  80%
Third week of classes    40%
Fourth week of classes 20%
After the end of the fourth week of classes -0-

As an ABA-accredited law school, Duquesne University School of Law is subject to the ABA Standards for Approval of Law Schools. The ABA Standards may be found at http://www.americanbar.org/groups/legal_ education/resources/standards.html. Pursuant to ABA Standard 512, any student at the Law School who wishes to bring a formal complaint to the administration of the School of Law “of a significant problem that directly implicates the school’s program of legal education and its compliance with the ABA Standards” shall do the following:

1. Submit the complaint in writing to the Associate Dean of Academic Affairs, or the Assistant Dean of Students (the complaint may be made by email, U.S. mail, hand delivery, or fax);

2 Cite the appropriate ABA Standard at issue, and describe in detail the behavior, program, process, or other matter that is the subject of the complaint, and should explain how the matter implicates the School of Law’s program of legal education and its compliance with a specific, identified ABA Standard(s); and

3. Provide the name, official School of Law email address, and a street address of the complaining student, for further communication about the complaint. When an administrator receives a student complaint that complies with the foregoing requirements, the following procedures shall be followed:

1. The administrator to whom the complaint is submitted will acknowledge the complaint within three business days of receipt of the written complaint. Acknowledgment may be made by email, U.S. mail, or by personal delivery, at the option of the administrator.

2. Within two weeks of acknowledgment of the complaint, the administrator, or the administrator’s designee, shall either meet with the complaining student, or respond to the substance of the complaint in writing. In this meeting or in this writing, the student should either receive a substantive response to the complaint, or information about what steps are being taken by the School of Law to address the complaint or further investigate the complaint. If further investigation is needed, when the investigation is completed, the student shall be provided either a substantive response to the complaint or information about what steps are being taken by the School of Law to address the complaint within two weeks after completion of the investigation.

3. Appeals regarding decisions on complaints may be taken to the Dean of the School of Law. Any decision made on appeal by the Dean shall be final.

4. A copy of the complaint and a summary of the process and resolution of the complaint shall be kept in the office of the Dean for a period of eight years from the date of final resolution of the complaint.

Your Duquesne University personal email account is the official method of communication for Duquesne administrative matters. You are required to periodically check your account for time critical notices such as billing notifications, insurance requirements or other important alerts or administrative notices requiring a timely response. Notice will be considered received one day following the date the notice is posted to your email account. Failure to check your email account does not excuse or exempt you from any actions required of you by the University.

Advance assignments, class cancellations, classroom changes, student organization information, career services information, and all other School of Law notices appear on the informational monitors located throughout the School of Law and/or on the online bulletin board at duq.edu/law.

Once students have registered for courses, they may review their semester booklists on Self Service Banner in DORI. Duquesne University’s Barnes & Noble Bookstore, located in the Power Center on Forbes Avenue, has a link in Self-Service Banner.

All students should regularly check the informational television monitors, online, student mail folders, and their .duq email accounts for advance reading assignments, class cancellations, School of Law notices, Career Services notices, student organization information, and general information.

Announcements concerning School of Law closings due to inclement weather or other special circumstances are available at 412.396.1700 and online at duq.edu/law.

Students experiencing academic difficulties in any course are strongly encouraged to schedule an appointment with their professor(s) and/or the Director of Academic Excellence Program as soon as possible. Regarding matters of course selection and sequencing, the School of Law Registrar will provide written information to students in advance of the registration period, and will assign faculty advisors to all students shortly after the beginning of the spring semester. The faculty advisors list is posted online at duq.edu/law/registrar. Students who are interested in pursuing any of the School of Law’s practice concentrations should consult with concentration faculty advisors regarding course selection.

Regular and punctual attendance at all classes is mandatory, and the following policy shall apply to all courses in the School of Law. Faculty members are not required to announce attendance rules at the start of the semester in which a course begins, unless implementing a stricter attendance standard than that set forth below. A student who misses more than 20% of scheduled classes for a course in any semester without good cause, as determined by the faculty member, will receive a grade of ”F” in that course and receive no credit, regardless of whether the course grade is based on one or more quizzes, exams, papers, or projects. A student’s late arrival or lack of preparation for class may be counted by the faculty member as an absence.

Students who are notified that they will fail an elective course due to excessive absences may petition the Academic Status Committee for relief; however, the sole relief that may be granted, in the discretion of the Committee, is to convert the “F” to a withdrawal from the course. This relief will be granted only if good cause is provided by the student to the Committee in advance of its consideration of the student’s petition, and only if the course instructor acquiesces. Further, no student will be entitled to a withdrawal if it would result in the student being enrolled in fewer credits for the semester than required for residency purposes. The right to petition does not apply to excessive absences in required courses, because no student may withdraw from a required course.

For the purposes of illustration only, a student may miss no more than three classes in courses that are scheduled to meet 14 times per semester, no more than six classes in courses that are scheduled to meet 28 times per semester, and no more than eight classes in courses that are scheduled to meet 42 times per semester.

Any absences for an extended period of time, due to illness or other exigent circumstances, must be reported to the Assistant Dean of Students and the School of Law Registrar.

The full-time day division is designed to provide training and education for those students who wish to devote full time to the study of law. The School of Law strongly suggests that first-year day division students not engage in any outside employment during their first year at the School of Law, and strongly suggests that upper-level fulltime, day division students not engage in more than 20 hours per week of outside employment.

Any student with special needs who desires accommodations for examinations or other class-related needs must contact the Duquesne University Office of Special Services at 412.396.6657 to begin the process of documenting the condition that warrants accommodations. Students are encouraged to begin this process as soon as possible. Once a condition is formally documented, the Office of Special Services will determine the accommodations that are appropriate for the student, and will notify the School of Law’s Assistant Dean of Students. Students must complete this process in order to be afforded accommodations at the School of Law. Duquesne University’s policy with regard to accommodations for disabled students is available online at: duq.edu/special-students.

Students whose religious practices preclude them from taking exams on certain days of the week are strongly encouraged to check the exam schedule as early as possible during each semester and to contact the School of Law Registrar’s office to request a revised exam schedule, if needed. Students should not contact their professors about any exam scheduling issues.

Written examinations are held at the completion of all courses unless the faculty has determined otherwise. Each semester, all students are issued an examination number by the School of Law Registrar’s Office in order to ensure that grading will be anonymous. Failure to take an examination or to submit any papers required at the scheduled time in any course shall constitute a failure of such course.

For the purpose of maintaining anonymity, students are not permitted to contact individual professors regarding requests for make-up examinations, rescheduling of examinations, or any other matter regarding examinations until after grades are posted for those examinations.

Article VII: LL.M. for Foreign Lawyers Graduation Requirements

The Master of Laws for Foreign Lawyers degree program offers foreign lawyers and foreign students studying law or in a law-related field the opportunity to study U.S. law with U.S. law students.  Candidates may choose from two tracks:  the General Track and the Bar Track.  Both tracks allow students the opportunity to study, and improve, their legal research, writing, and analytical skills in the context of U.S. law.  The General Track is designed to familiarize foreign lawyers and students with the general principles of U.S. law and to prepare them for the demands of practicing law in a global economy.  Graduates of the General Track will acquire the necessary skills to understand the cross-border implications of U.S. law.  They will return to their home country prepared to work with their colleagues and with U.S. attorneys with respect to issues that implicate U.S. law.  The Bar Track is designed for students interested in preparing to take the bar exam in California or in New York; students who wish to take the U.S. bar exam in another jurisdiction should apply for the J.D. program.

7.02(a) Selection of Track

Candidates must indicate on their application whether they are applying for the General Track or for the Bar Track.  Once admitted, a student may not transfer from the General Track to the Bar Track, even though the student satisfies the requirements for admission to the Bar Track.   Students admitted to the Bar Track may, in certain circumstances, transfer to the General Track; however, a student who transfers to the General Track will not be certified to sit for the California or New York Bar.

7.02(b) Admissions Criteria – General Track.

7.02(b)(1) Educational Requirements:

The following candidates may apply for the General Track:

  • Foreign Lawyers and Candidates for a Foreign Law Degree.
  • Candidates who have already fulfilled the educational requirements for admission to the practice of law in a foreign country, including a law degree from an institution recognized by the competent accrediting agency of the government of the foreign country.
  • Candidates studying law at a foreign institution that has in effect a joint LL.B./LL.M. degree agreement with Duquesne University School of Law and who have completed three years of their LL.B. degree program at their home institution and will complete their fourth year of study of law at Duquesne University School of Law by earning an LL.M. for Foreign Lawyers as part of this joint degree program.
  • Candidates Holding or Pursuing a Foreign Law-Related Degree.
  • Candidates who have already fulfilled the educational requirements for admission to the practice of law in a foreign country, including a law-related degree from an institution recognized by the competent accrediting agency of the government of the foreign country.
  • Candidates pursuing a law-related degree at a foreign institution that has in effect a joint LL.B./LL.M. degree agreement with Duquesne University School of Law and who have completed three years of their LL.B. degree program at their home institution, and will complete their fourth year of study for their degree at the Duquesne University School of Law by earning an LL.M. for Foreign Lawyers as part of this joint degree program.

 

7.02(b)(2) English Language Requirements

 

Applicants for the General Track must satisfy the following requirements:

  • English Proficiency Test Scores:
    • TOEFL Score of 90 or an IELTS examination score of 7.  Applicants to the General Track LL.M. Program, who have a TOEFL examination score of 90 or above or an IELTS examination score of 7 or above:
      • Must successfully complete a telephone interview in order to establish the necessary fluency.
      • Must, once they arrive at Duquesne, undergo testing by the Duquesne University ESL Department, the results of which will determine whether the applicant is required to take any additional English language courses while pursuing the LL.M.  Failure to undergo the required ESL testing or to take any required, additional English-language courses will result in revocation of an applicant’s admission to the LL.M. Program.
      • In the case of foreign lawyers and candidates for a foreign law degree,attendance at Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students during the summer immediately preceding matriculation is strongly encouraged.  
      • For candidates holding or pursuing a foreign law-related degree, attendance at Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students during the summer immediately preceding matriculation is required.  Failure to attend shall result in revocation of an applicant’s admission to the LL.M. Program.
      • TOEFL Score of 85 to 89 or IELTS score of 6.5.  Applicants to the General Track LL.M. Program, who have a TOEFL score of 85 to 89 or an IELTS score of 6.5 may be admitted at the discretion of the Dean’s office and the Assistant Dean of Enrollment Management (the Assistant Dean), after consulting with the ESL department, which shall include a review of the applicant’s TOEFL or IELTS scores as a whole and in the four key sub-categories, and after conducting a telephone interview with the candidate. If admitted, applicants who have a TOEFL score of 85 to 89 or an IELTS score of 6.5: 
        • Must undergo testing by the Duquesne University ESL Department once they arrive at Duquesne.  The results of those tests will determine whether the applicant is required to take any additional English language courses while pursuing the LL.M.
        • Must attend Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students during the summer immediately preceding matriculation.
        • Failure to undergo the required ESL testing or to take any additional, required English-language courses or to attend Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students will result in revocation of an applicant’s admission to the LL.M. Program.
        • TOEFL score of 80 to 84 or an IELTS score of 6.0 to 6.49.  Applicants to the General Track LL.M. Program who have a TOEFL score of 80 to 84 or an IELTS score of 6.0 to 6.49, may be admitted in the discretion of the Dean’s office and the Assistant Dean of Enrollment Management (the Assistant Dean) ONLY, in consultation with the ESL department, which shall include a review of the candidate’s TOEFL or IELTS scores as a whole and in the four key sub-categories, and after conducting a telephone interview with the candidate. If admitted, applicants who have a TOEFL score of 80 to 84 or an IELTS score of 6.0 to 6.49
          • Must, once they arrive at Duquesne, undergo testing by the Duquesne University ESL Department, the results of which will determine whether the applicant is required to take any additional English language courses while pursuing the LL.M.
          • Must attend Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students during the summer immediately preceding matriculation.  The Assistant Dean may waive this requirement for applicants matriculating in Fall 2017.
          • Failure to undergo the required ESL testing or to take any required additional English-language courses or to attend Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students will result in revocation of an applicant’s admission to the LL.M. Program.

 

7.02(c) Admissions Criteria – Bar Track

7.02(c)(1) Educational Requirements:

The following candidates may apply for the Bar Track:

  • Foreign Lawyers and Candidates for a Foreign Law Degree.
  • Candidates who have already fulfilled the educational requirements for admission to the practice of law in a foreign country, including a law degree from an institution recognized by the competent accrediting agency of the government of the foreign country.
  • Candidates studying law at a foreign institution that has in effect a joint LL.B./LL.M. degree agreement with Duquesne University School of Law and who have completed three years of their LL.B. degree program at their home institution and will complete their fourth year of study of law at Duquesne University School of Law by earning an LL.M. for Foreign Lawyers as part of this joint degree program.

 

7.02(c)(2) English Language Requirements

Applicants for the Bar Track must satisfy the following requirements:

  • English Proficiency Test Scores:  All applicants to the Bar Track LL.M. Program must have a TOEFL Score of 90 or above or an IELTS examination score of 7 or above.  

7.02(c)(3) Other Admissions Requirements: 

All applicants to the Bar Track:

  • Must successfully complete a telephone interview in order to establish the necessary fluency.
  • Must, once they arrive at Duquesne, undergo testing by the Duquesne University ESL Department, the results of which will determine whether the applicant is required to take any additional English language courses while pursuing the LL.M.
  • Must attend Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students during the summer immediately preceding matriculation. 
  • Failure to undergo the required ESL testing or to take any required additional English-language courses or to attend Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students will result in revocation of an applicant’s admission to the LL.M. Program.

7.02(d) Application Forms

Applications are available on-line at: www.duq.edu/law/academics/llm/applications.cfm and from the Law School Admissions Office. Application deadline is April 30 of the year in which a candidate wishes to enter the Program, which can be extended at the discretion of the Assistant Dean.

7.03(a) Credits Required

  • General Track LL.M. candidates are required to receive passing grades in classes totaling twenty-four credits in order to graduate with the LL.M. degree.
  • Courses taken in Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students shall not count towards the required twenty-four credits.
  • General Track LL.M. candidates must complete the General Curriculum within 24 months from the date of matriculation.

 

7.03(b) Core and Elective Courses

  • The General Track LL.M. Degree requires the completion of a certain number of required courses (the “Core Courses”), as well as the completion of electives.
  • General Track LL.M. candidates are required to attend Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students during the summer immediately preceding matriculation if they failed to receive at least a TOEFFL score of 90 or an IELTS examination score of 7; however, General Track LL.M. candidates holding or pursuing a foreign law-related degree must attend Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students regardless of their TOEFL or IELTS score.
  • The Core Courses are listed in Attachment A.
  • In addition to the Core Courses, General Track LL.M. candidates may take any Elective or JD-required course offered by the Law School, except for the required first-year Legal Research and Writing courses, Core Competencies, Applied Competencies, Advanced Legal Reasoning, and Elective courses for which they have not taken and passed a listed pre-requisite course.  Furthermore, without the express written permission of the professor teaching the course, LL.M. candidates may not take any of the following courses:  Advanced Legal Writing courses; courses linked to the Trial Advocacy and Appellate Advocacy Programs; and Clinical and Externship courses.

 

7.03(c) Grading:

 

  • The examinations of General Track LL.M. candidates will be specifically identified and graded outside of any curve established by the Law School.
  • LL.M. candidates will be graded in all courses on a pass/fail basis.
  • At the professor’s discretion, LL.M. candidates may be graded by use of the same exam as J.D. candidates or by an alternative exam; however, General Track LL.M. candidates who are non-native English speakers will be offered the following accommodations:
  • They may use a common-language (i.e., not legal) translating dictionary from their native language into English during any examination.
  • They may request 50% more time than J.D. candidates if the professor elects to have the LL.M. candidates sit for the same exam as the J.D. students.
  • At the professor’s discretion, other accommodations may be offered (e.g., open book examinations).

 

7.03(d) Bar Certification and Transfers.

  • LL.M. candidates on the General Track may not sit for a bar examination, and the Law School Registrar will not certify any LL.M. graduate from the General Track as eligible to sit for any bar examination.
  • LL.M. students on the General Track are not permitted to transfer to the Bar Track.

7.04(a) Credits Required

  • LL.M. candidates in the Bar Track must receive passing grades in classes totaling twenty-five credit hours within twelve months of matriculation in order to graduate with the LL.M. degree.
  • Courses taken in Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students shall not count towards the required twenty-five credits.

 

7.04(b) Core and Electives

The Bar Track LL.M. Degree requires the completion of a certain number of required courses (the “Core Courses”), as well as the completion of electives.

The core courses are listed on Attachment B.

In addition to the Core Courses, candidates may take up to two electives in any course offered by the Law School, except for the first-year Legal Research and Writing course (required of first-year J.D. candidates), Advanced Legal Reasoning, and any course for which they have not successfully passed a prerequisite course.  In addition, without the express written permission of the professor teaching the course, LL.M. students may not take the following courses: Advanced Legal Writing courses; courses linked to the Trial Advocacy and Appellate Advocacy Programs; and Clinical and Externship courses.

Bar Track LL.M. candidates are required to attend Duquesne Law School’s Summer Bridge Program for Foreign Law Students or Intensive Orientation Program (IOP) in the summer months immediately preceding matriculation.

 

7.04(c) Grading

LL.M. candidates on the Bar Track must take the same exam as, and will be subject to the same standards as, those applicable to J.D. candidates.

Bar Track LL.M. candidates will be graded on the same grading scale as J.D. candidates in every course.  The grading scale is: A+, A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D+, D, F.

Unlike General Track LL.M. candidates, Bar Track LL.M. candidates shall not be entitled to accommodations based on their proficiency in the English language.  Please note that Duquesne University School of Law strictly adheres to a policy of non-discrimination and will make reasonable accommodations for students as required by law.  For more information, please refer to Duquesne’s policies on non-discrimination and accommodations.

LL.M. students on the Bar Track must maintain a grade point average of at least 2.00 to remain on the Bar Track.   Any Bar Track LL.M. student who fails to maintain the required grade point average shall be automatically transferred to the General Curriculum.  Any Bar Track student who receives a grade of less than C in any course is strongly encouraged to transfer to the General Curriculum.

 

7.04(d) Bar Certification and Transfers

Bar Track LL.M. students who successfully complete the necessary requirements may be certified by the Law School Registrar to sit for the New York or California bar.

In certain limited circumstances foreign lawyers who have practiced law for at least five of the last eight years and meet other requirements may sit for the Pennsylvania Bar exam.  Candidates for the Bar Track students who satisfy these requirements and are interested in sitting for the Pennsylvania Bar exam should speak to the Dean’s office prior to admission.  Duquesne Law School will work with qualified applicants to structure their educational experience to that they will satisfy these requirements.  See http://www.pabarexam.org/bar_admission_rules/205.htm for more information.

All requirements related to applying to sit for any bar examination shall be the sole responsibility of the LL.M. candidate, including without limitation, ensuring that their original degree-granting institution meets the requirements of the licensing agency in the state where the applicant intends to sit.

Applicants must consult the licensing agency in the jurisdiction where they intend to sit for the bar examination prior to matriculating at the Law School.

Students on the Bar Track may transfer to the general curriculum by providing the Law School Registrar written notice of intent to transfer during add/drop (the first week of each semester) and completing any other paperwork required by the Registrar’s office.    In all other situations, students who wish to transfer from the Bar Track to the General Track must petition the Academic Status Committee of the Law School, and permission to transfer may be denied in the discretion of the Committee.   If a student on the Bar Track transfers to the General Track, any credits successfully completed on the Bar Track shall count towards the 24-credits required for the General Track.

The Bar Pass Curriculum is tailored to candidates who intend to sit for a bar examination in one of the United States.  The LL.M. for Foreign Lawyers Bar Tack Curriculum provides foreign-trained lawyers with the foundations for practicing law in the United States.  Students in this program gain grounding in the basic principles of American law in a curriculum designed to meet the requirements for foreign-trained lawyers to sit for the bar examinations in New York or California.

  • New York: Applicants must complete period of law study equivalent in duration and substance to that specified in New York rules in law school recognized by competent accrediting agency of the government of such foreign country.  All applicants must have their transcripts evaluated by the Board of Law Examiners to determine if further study is required in the form of a qualifying LL.M. degree from an ABA-approved law school in the United States. Rules related to applications and eligibility to sit for the New York bar examination are available at: http://www.nybarexam.org/Eligible/Eligibility.htm
  • California: Foreign law school graduates must request individual evaluation to determine legal education equivalency.  Graduates from foreign law schools may qualify to take the California bar exam if they obtain an LL.M. degree or complete an additional one year of law study at an ABA-approved or California-accredited law school that includes a certain number of credits in bar examination subject matter.  Foreign-educated law students who did not graduate are not eligible to take the exam and are required to either graduate with a J.D. degree at an ABA-approved or California-accredited law school or complete four years of law study at a law school registered in California and pass the First-Year Law Students Exam.  Foreign law school graduates who are admitted to the active practice of law in good standing in their countries do not have to complete any additional law study to qualify to take the bar exam. Rules related to application and eligibility to sit for the California bar examination are available at: http://admissions.calbar.ca.gov/Requirements.aspx
  • The above descriptions of the requirements to sit for the bar examinations in New York and California are for descriptive purposes only, and do not contain the full list of requirements, which are subject to change from time to time and at any time by the administrative agencies in each jurisdiction. In all cases, it is expressly understood that the LL.M. applicant, student, or graduate bears responsibility for learning and complying with the requirements to sit for a bar examination. Duquesne Law School makes no representation and provides no assurances that any LL.M. applicant, student, or graduate is eligible to sit for a bar examination.

Tuition is set by the Administration, without regard for the J.D. tuition.

Successful General Track Candidates shall receive a Master of Laws.  Successful Candidates on the Bar Track shall receive the Master of Laws “with Honors.” 

Attachment A:

General Curriculum for LL.M. Program for Foreign-Trained Lawyers

Completed in One Academic Year

 

I.                   Total Credits Required: 24 credits

 

II.                Core Courses

 

  1. Introduction to the American Legal System (2 credits) (Submission of a significant paper is required.)
  2. Legal Research, Writing and Analysis (including case briefing) (3 Credits total, taken as 1 Cr Fall; 2 CR Spring)
  3. Minimum of two courses from the following list:
    1. Contracts I
    2. Contracts II
    3. Torts I
    4. Torts II
    5. Civil Procedure I
    6. Civil Procedure II
    7. Property I
    8. Property II
    9. Criminal Law
    10. Criminal Procedure
    11. Constitutional Law I
    12. Constitutional Law II

 

Note:  Prerequisite to part II of any two-part course is successful completion of part I of the course.

III.              Elective Courses

The remainder of the credits may come from any Elective or JD-required course offered by the Law School, except for the required first-year Legal Research and Writing courses, Core Competencies, Applied Competencies, Advanced Legal Reasoning, and courses for which they have not taken and passed a listed pre-requisite course.  Furthermore, without the express written permission of the professor teaching the course, LL.M. candidates may not take any of the following courses: Advanced Legal Writing courses; courses linked to the Trial Advocacy and Appellate Advocacy Programs; and Clinical and Externship courses.  

Attachment B:

            Bar Track Curriculum for LL.M. for Foreign-Trained Lawyers Program

I.          Total credits required:  25 credit hours must be successfully completed within one calendar year of matriculation in order to earn the LL.M. degree.

II.        The Bar Track Curriculum for the LL.M. for Foreign-Trained Lawyers Program requires that students take and pass the following Core Courses in the semester listed in the chart below:

            Fall Semester                                                                                      Credit Hours

            Legal Research, Writing & Analysis I                                                    1

            Introduction to the American Legal System                                           2

            Professional Responsibility (Ethics)                                                       3

            Core Competencies for Legal Practice I                                                 2

            Constitutional Law I                                                                               3

            Property I        or                                                                                     3

            Contracts I                                                                                              2

            Spring Semester                                                                                  Credit Hours

            Legal Research, Writing & Analysis II                                                  2

            Core Competencies for Legal Practice II                                               2

            Constitutional Law II                                                                             3

            Property II      or                                                                                     3

            Contracts II                                                                                             3

III.       Elective Courses

A.        In addition to the Core Courses, candidates may take up to two electives in any course offered by the Law School, except for the first-year Legal Research and Writing course (required of first-year J.D. candidates), Advanced Legal Reasoning, and any course for which they have not successfully passed a prerequisite course.  In addition, without the express written permission of the professor teaching the course, LL.M. students may not take the following courses:  Advanced Legal Writing courses; courses linked to the Trial Advocacy and Appellate Advocacy Programs; and Clinical and Externship courses.

B.        It is strongly recommended, but not required, that students on the Bar Track Curriculum should take electives in subjects that are tested on the bar examination.  These subjects include:  Criminal Law; Criminal Procedure; Civil Procedure; Uniform Commercial Code Articles 2 and 2A (Sales and Leased Goods); and Corporations. 

IV.       Notes:

A.        The Bar Track Curriculum requires completion of 25 credit hours within one year of matriculation.

B.        The 25-hour requirement can be satisfied by completing only the Core Courses, which add up to 12 – 13 credit hours per semester.

C.        Subject to the restrictions set forth above in Section III, students may take up to two elective courses while resident at the School of Law; however, no student may take more than 17 credit hours in any semester.

D.        The spring semester course, Legal Research, Writing & Analysis II, requires the preparation and submission of a significant paper.

The Policies of the School of Law shall apply to LL.M. candidates to the extent not inconsistent with the provisions of this section (Section 7).

Article VIII: Duquesne University and School of Law Statement of Policies

Duquesne University and the Duquesne University School of Law recognize that the educational process, from admission through graduation, requires continuing review and appropriate approval by appropriate University and School of Law officials. As such, the provisions of this Bulletin are to be considered directive in character. The University and the School of Law, therefore, reserve the right, at any time, to change any and all requirements, schedules (including changing course instructors), regulations, and policies contained herein, including, but not limited to the requirements for graduation, fees, tuition, room and board costs, and to determine whether an individual has satisfactorily met the requirements for admission or graduation.

University policies applicable to graduate students apply as well to law students. To the extent that a University policy conflicts with a School of Law policy, the University policy shall control.

By enrolling in any program or course offered by the School of Law, or by attending any academic or co-curricular offering conducted under the auspices of the School of Law, a student thereby consents to the audio and video recording of that program, a course meeting, or other offering, if such consent is required by local, state, or federal law. Notice of recording of any program, course meeting, or offering will be provided to all persons attending the program, course meeting, or offering. The making and use of such recordings is subject to the University’s requirements under the Americans with Disabilities Act and other similar federal or state requirements. Recordings may be made for other academic purposes, such as making recordings available to students who are unable to attend a program, course meetings, or offering. Permission to access a recording will be determined by the faculty member teaching the course or other official of the School of Law. Any person granted permission to view a recording may not retain a copy of the recording, disseminate the recording to others, or transcribe the recording other than for purposes of course study by that person. Retaining a copy, or disseminating a copy of the recording or a transcript, will be considered a violation of the Disciplinary Code of the School of Law.

Under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act, access to student records by nonuniversity personnel is restricted unless granted by the student, or dependency of the student is demonstrated by a parent or guardian.

The School of Law maintains an academic record and file for any student who has registered for any regular session. In addition, a financial aid file and/or a career services file are maintained for each student who has applied for or otherwise sought the assistance of those offices. The School of Law respects the privacy rights of its students and their families and also endeavors to insure the accuracy of all information contained in any file.

University policies regarding discrimination and harassment are defined in TAPs Nos. 30 (Affirmative Action, Equal Educational and Employment Opportunity, and Human Relations in the Workplace and Classroom) and 31 (University Policy on Gender Discrimination and Sexual Misconduct).

If you feel you have been discriminated against or harassed, please contact the director of anti-discrimination policy and compliance, Sean Weaver, at weavers2@duq.edu or 412.396.2560.

Duquesne current students, staff and faculty can learn more about anti-discrimination and sexual harassment on DORI.

University Affirmative Action Officer 412.396.6661
Department of Public Safety* 412.396.2677
University Title IX Coordinator 412.396.2560
Director of Student Conduct 412.396.6642
Office of the General Counsel 412.396.5181
Pittsburgh Police Department* 911

 

* These phones answer 24 hours a day/7 days a week.

The University policy with regard to accommodations for disabled students is available from the University Office of Special Services duq.edu/life-at-duquesne/student-services/special-services

Any student desiring accommodations for class sessions or examinations should contact the Assistant Dean of Students. A student who considers himself or herself disabled is advised to contact Special Services, 309 Duquesne Union, 412.396.6658, in order to inquire about the University’s pertinent policies and procedures. Within the School of Law, the person to contact is the Assistant Dean of Students.